Essay Examples on Montclair State University

Buffer Capacity the most Important Component of Resilience

Introduction Resilience in relation to livelihoods thus depends on actors capacity and agency and the framing social and natural conditions Buffer capacity the most important component of resilience reflects many of these features Buffer capacity means having the capacity to cushion change and possibly to use the emerging opportunities to achieve better livelihood outcomes such as reducing poverty However buffer capacity is more than having livelihood assets it is also about actions to maintain or increase assets Carpenter et al 2001 refer to buffer capacity as the amount of change the system can undergo and retain the same structure function identity and feedbacks on function and structure cf Adger 2000 Used for livelihoods a livelihood is resilient if it can maintain its key functions e g food income insurance etc and absorb the impacts of disturbances without undergoing major declines in production and well being People generate a full range of goods and services by converting their assets and resources through production trade social security provisions and subsidies In a socio ecological system group or individual with greater ability to utilize their capitals is often more likely to buffer adverse impacts than those with lesser or none Adger and Kelly 1990 show that the human access to and use of resources are determinant factors for the people's ability to cope with and adapt to stress In addition buffer capacity also depends on how livelihood strategies deplete or enhance capacities For example stewardship embodies a co management of environmental resources to achieve long term sustainability and is an ethic common in many indigenous knowledge and management systems cf Berkes et al 2000 The sustainable livelihoods framework SLF demonstrates the relationship between a wide range of livelihood capitals and capacity of the households to manage vulnerabilities Livelihood capitals or assets which can be human e g skills health condition knowledge financial e g incomes savings physical e g technological innovations social benefits through group memberships or natural e g soil organic carbon content cf DFID 2000

2 pages | 658 words
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Security was defined in different ways in the Cold War, Post Cold War

The foreign relations of states military economic interests and the crossings of the nature of these interests in changeable and or competitive international environment and the nature of relations which they cause are all assayed in terms of pursuits and ambitions to achieve national or international security The changing nature of the world s dynamics emerged different security s definitions Security was defined in different ways in the cold war post cold war and after the September events The large explanations of what is security or what security should be is quite large to the extent to be described by some as a toxic for security studies Narrow interpretations asserts that security focus more on the use of threat military control force that is to say the conditions that make the use of force more likely the ways that the use of force affects individuals states and societies and the specific policies that states adopt in order to prepare for prevent or engage in war Walt 1991 212 On the other hand Buzan 1986 and Smith 2005 claim that the concept of security is contested in a way its meaning is seen as still not definable and intrinsically debated To critically assess that the concept it contested this essay will incorporate two theoretical approaches in the process of demonstrating that security is a contested concept in an international relations changing environment where a stagnant definition in unlike to be achieved in accordance to some groups understanding of security and due to the emergence of new threats such as terrorism climate change sectarian conflicts in a addition to the varying nature of the world events

2 pages | 539 words
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