Essay Examples on Northwest College

Efficient calf management plays a crucial role in producing and Supplying

INTRODUCTION Efficient calf management plays a crucial role in producing and supplying healthy and productive replacement stock for the dairy herd of the farm When better start in life is given to calves in terms of feeding housing and healthcare they are more likely to grow into healthy and profitable assets The important targets of successful calf management are to keep calf mortality to a minimum maintain good calf growth and health to raise the desired number of healthy and productive replacement stock In an ideal condition calf mortality should be less than 5 Blood and Radostits 1989 But in India neonatal calf mortality ranges from 12 5 to 30 Verma et al 1980 and in the world it ranges from 8 7 to 64 Khan and Khan 1991 Calf mortality in the first month of age is about 80 85 of the total mortality Jenny et al 1981 and is particularly high in the 3rd week of life Umoh 1982 Diseases of the newborn calf and calf mortality are the major causes of economic losses in livestock production It is roughly estimated that a calf mortality of 20 may reduce net profit to 40 Blood and Radostits 1989 Poor health and mortality of the calves are largely associated with the unhygienic management as growth and productivity are mainly dependent on nutrition and management practices At birth a calf is as good as a non ruminant pre ruminant stage which may last up to three months The rumen is underdeveloped abomasum is active and makes up for 70 of total volume Calves are born hypoglobulinemic or agammaglobulinemic as epitheliochorial placenta of the cow separates the maternal and fetal blood supplies preventing in utero transmission of protective immunoglobulins Newborn calf only has enough energy stores in the form of fat and glycogen to last for approximately 18 hours without colostrum consumption 

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