Essay Examples on State University of New York at Cobleskill

Sovereignty has demonstrated to be a puzzling Establishment

During the past decades sovereignty has demonstrated to be a puzzling establishment at the same time altering and persistent Currently it is of significant curiosity to academics of International Relations and is the topic of considerable discussion This essay assesses how the orthodox models of sovereignty have been contested in the post Cold War era with the growth of several nations with variable internal structures together with the development of recent menaces to the international order This essay divides the discussion into four parts the first examines the concept of sovereignty that originated from the Peace of Westphalia 1648 the second part observes the geo political structure right after the end of the Cold War thus the birth of interdependence sovereignty established in a unipolar world order where nations step from an internal to an external sovereignty and the curious reactions of the United Nations UN to this order The third segment s main focus is on humanitarian intervention with the example of NATO's involvement in Kosovo in 1999 which can be described as the shift that took over the concept of national sovereign from realist to a rising ethical view with the support of a global civil society movement 

1 pages | 396 words

What is Spectral Purity of an Oscillator Issues

Don’t let the phase noise of a signal source destroy your RF measurements What is spectral purity of an oscillator Spectral purity is the inherent stability of a signal It varies in frequency and time The major measurements of spectral purity are phase noise harmonics and spurs Phase noise is the most important figure of merit of a signal generator In this post you will learn what phase noise is and how it impacts your RF measurements How Big Is the Gap Between Ideal Reality Let's look at ideal and real signals first As shown in Figure 1 below an ideal signal is a perfect sinusoidal waveform in the time domain In the frequency domain it s a single spectral line However in the real world there are always unwanted amplitude and phase fluctuations on the signal Both random amplitude fluctuations and phase fluctuations are added to the ideal sinusoidal waveform equation The waveform has a phase shift and amplitude shift in the time domain In the frequency domain the signal has both amplitude and frequency modulation Figure 1 Equations and waveforms of ideal and real continuous waves Phase noise is a frequency domain view of the noise spectrum around the oscillator signal It describes frequency stability of an oscillator Frequency stability can be broken into two components long term stability and short term stability shown in Figure 2 below Figure 2 Long term frequency stability and short term frequency stability Long term stability is characterized in terms of hours days months or even years Short term stability refers to frequency changes that occur over a period of a few seconds or less There are 2 categories of short term stability Random noise The variation is random and is commonly called phase noise The sources of random noise in a signal include thermal noise amplifier noise and flicker noise in active and passive components Deterministic signals Signals appear as distinct components on the ideal spectrum These signals commonly called spurious signals result from power line frequency or mixers
2 pages | 667 words