Essay Example on A virus is a tiny organism agent that infects a Cell









A virus is a tiny organism agent that infects a cell and causing an illness or a disease The virus agent is much smaller than bacteria that it cannot be visualized through a normal microscope The virus is made of a protein and there are DNA or RNA inside of it The function of is to DNA and RNA make more cells When a virus meets a cell it starts to copy themselves and produce more same cells including a virus These viruses are everywhere that more than a million of viruses are thought to be existed West Nile virus is the one of viruses that attacks human s body The disease of West Nile virus is called West Nile Infection Characteristics The West Nile virus is a family of Flavivirus Specifically the characteristics of virus is round shaped covering a diameter of 40 65nm long capsid is contained The capsid has single stranded RNA that connects other capsid pre membrane proteins and other 7 proteins that cause viral replication Symptoms The West Nile virus is commonly seen in Africa Europe the Middle East North America and West Asia This disease occurs mostly summer season when mosquitoes are active Mosquitoes carry its virus and infects humans birds and other mammals When people get a bite by mosquitoes there are some reactions along with itchiness have seen in the body Signs and symptoms of West Nile Infection are varied in people 

Most people do not develop any symptoms or signs but some people develop symptoms that are like a flu symptom such as fever headaches body aches joint pains vomiting diarrhea or rash A few people get severe symptoms which affects the central nervous system that causes encephalitis or meningitis Those who develops serious symptoms can develop more reactions than do some people get They likely to have a coma disorientation tremors convulsions muscle weakness vision loss numbness and paralysis Being targeted by West Nile infection can be anyone that it doesn't matter in age but people over 60 years or people with certain medical conditions such as cancer diabetes hypertension kidney disease can be a high risk of getting severe symptoms Diagnosis A few laboratory tests are applied to diagnose the West Nile infection Mostly tests are performed by taking a sample of blood or cerebrospinal fluid CSF West Nile Virus Antibody Testing which detects the presence of specific antibodies in blood or CSF When the patient is infected with West Nile virus specific antibodies IgM are produced in blood or CSF to fight viruses If the test detects the presence of antibodies IgM result in the patient might have infection with the virus The presence of antibodies IgM are the evidence of infection but it can be confusing with another related Flaviviruses or no reactivity The reasons of why it is confusing because antibodies IgM are usually seen in 3 to 8 days after symptoms occur and consistent remaining for 30 to 90 days 

For some reasons specific antibodies IgM can be absence in 8 days so that might be negative in result In addition after existing of IgM antibodies other antibodies which are West Nile Virus IgG antibodies are later found This presence of IgG antibodies leads to prove previous infection in blood or CSF Plaque reduction neutralization tests PRNTs Plaque reduction neutralization tests PRNTs is another test to diagnose West Nile infection PRNTs is often used for other common infection disease such as Dengue virus or Zika virus This test shows to see reaction of the serum to virus PRNTs can identify the level of infection to help understanding concentration of antibody West Nile virus specific neutralizing antibody can be shown as range between acute and convalescent phase by PRNTs Laboratory tests If you re infected a blood test may show a rising level of antibodies to the West Nile virus Antibodies are immune system proteins that attack foreign substances such as viruses Viral cultures and tests Viral cultures and tests also can detect viral RNA These tests show positive and negative of infection on serum CSF and tissue specimens that are collected in early illness Positive result shows that there is presence of infectious virus is confirm an infection The chemical that used for in this test Immunohistochemistry IHC can detect West Nile virus antigen in tissue Treatment Treatment for West Nile infection has been not found There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments For those who have mild symptoms such as fever or headaches can be treated by taking a plenty of rest fluids and pain reliever medications On the other hand for severe symptom patients hospitalization is needed to receive additional care with IV fluids or other medications In case of the patient is affected by encephalitis or meningitis more urgent care is needed in the hospital

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