Essay Example on According to Neaum 2010 language is learned through social Interaction









According to Neaum 2010 language is learned through social interaction within the society an individual grows up in Social interaction helps build attachment increases a child's interests in their environment and provides a child s stimulation for language development Gully 2014 From birth the relationship between the mother and the child begins in the form of smiling cooing babbling and body movements From 8 20 months babies produce one word utterances uses sounds and enjoys babbling At 16 26 months babies begin to put two words together ask simple questions and use most vowels At 22 36 months children begin to use word endings going use simple sentences and speech becomes clearer At 30 50 months children start to use a range of tenses uses intonation rhythm and phrasing to be understood and sound clusters emerge There are several theories as to how children develop language including the behaviourist theory developed by Skinner 1957 focusing on operant conditioning where behaviours are repeated and learned by being either rewarded or punished Children use words that are positively reinforced by adults shaping a child's speech leading to adult like communication Doherty et al 2013 The social learning theory developed by Bandura proposes that children acquire vocabulary and complex grammar through listening to others observing the complexities in their phrases and rules and imitation Doherty et al 2013 

In contrast to these theories the nativist approach proposed by Chomsky argues that language is innate and the human brain has a language acquisition device LAD allowing children to process language and understand what is and is not linguistically acceptable Owens 2013 There are several factors that can affect a child's language development including the environment deprivation and poverty which can be closely linked Studies show children from lower socioeconomic groups entering schools have been overtaken by others Feinstein 2003 Due to stress caused by economic hardship parents are less likely to provide supportive parenting Families with low income are likely to be less involved with their child's learning due to their own negative experiences of education Thus resulting in them not having the skills and knowledge to aid their child's learning Wheeler and Connor 2009 This affects a child's language development as less educated parents may not know the significance of consistently using language and play with their baby delaying their early language skills Brazelton and Nugent 1995 state that early interaction and play is beneficial between parents and the child as it stimulates brain development enhances speech and language development and develops babies social skills in relationships Sutton 2016 According to Neaum 2010 low income typically results in a lack of access to books computers and other resources which affects the quality of the home environment as low income limits where families can live 

This impacts a child's early language development as early exposure and experiences with reading and other literacy related activities at home is beneficial for preschoolers development of vocabulary and decoding skills These environments offer children more opportunities to practice more complex language skills and diverse vocabulary Kim Im and Kwon 2015 The integrated review focuses on two year olds and requires providers to support parents with a written summary identifying their child's progress strengths and needs in accordance to the three prime learning areas of the EYFS It considers the influences in the child's life such as the child's family the home learning environment and the neighbourhood This is important as Bronfenbrenner emphasised the importance of studying a child in the context of numerous environments to understand a child's development Swick et al 2006 The integrated review appropriates intervention and support for children and their families where needed Parents play a vital role in the integrated review which is reflected throughout the review process The review process includes a discussion with parents

The Ages Stages Questionnaire and the review material provided by the practitioner consisting of daily observations of the child within the setting The Ages Stages Questionnaire covers five domains of development and begins the discussion about the child's development In preparation for the review guidance is given for parents and practitioners The integrated review states that to establish a good relationship with parents and an effective review a respectful empathic and strengths based approach needs to be demonstrated For instance a parent led opening agreement reflection on previous reviews and using open ended questions to prompt any concerns is suggested as well as discussing with parents of children who have been identified as disabled or with special educational needs whether to use the questionnaire This is effective as using open ended questions give parents an opportunity to express their views and feelings and share more information thus making them feel respected and valued Ward 2013

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