Essay Example on Alphonse Bertillion made up a way to identify people by taking Measurements

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Back in 1882 a man by the name of Alphonse Bertillion made up a way to identify people by taking measurements of all their body parts and writing it on a small note card he called it the Bertillon System But his system began to show a major fault when two inmates who looked almost exactly alike were put into Leavenworth Prison at the same time Their names were William West and Will West they had almost the same body measurements and their facial features were also shockingly similar When guards finally realized that they couldn't identify who was who by looking at notecards they realized that the Bertillon System wasn't as reliable as it once was And with that the usage of the Bertillon system began to decline and fingerprinting started to replace it Dna fingerprinting has been around for over 1 000 years but to this day there hasn't been a pair of matching fingerprints Every person who has ever lived has their own set of ridges resulting in their own unique fingerprint which is why fingerprinting is one of the main ways of identifying someone Unlike everything else on our bodies our fingerprints don't change as we age the fingerprint we are born with is the one we die with When human being are fetus we interact with the womb of our mothers and that interaction is what puts pressure on our fingers and creates the ridges and minutiae that can be seen if a fingerprint is closely examined Ridges are useful because they give us the ability to feel vibrations for example texture and they enable us to have better grips on surfaces like glass plastic wood etc

The world was exposed to the idea of our finger s having minutiae in 1892 when Charles Darwin s cousin Sir Francis Galton published a book all about fingerprints in which he talked about the characteristics of a finger and how unique each one is Without even realizing it we leave behind impressions a chemical mixture of our fingerprint that contains water amino acids cholesterol fatty acids small molecule oils dna and ionic salts The very mixture that our fingerprints are composed of is what leaves behind the impressions The two main impressions that can be left behind are called Patent prints and Latent prints Patent prints are left behind by things the naked eye can see like blood or ink while latent prints are always invisible to the eye and left by the natural oils that are in our skin There have been various police cases where the only thing that lead to the criminal was dna fingerprinting In 1891 an Argentine Police Officer began to fingerprint criminals The first time he used it was in a case where a mother murdered her two kids and then slit her own throat to try to blame someone else for the killings but due to a fingerprint that was found on a door post detectives were able to determine who the rightful killer was And the very first person to be put behind bars because of a fingerprint was a guy named Thomas Jennings in 1911 He was convicted of a murder and later executed Ever since his execution fingerprints have been a solid way of convicting someone for whatever crime they are guilty of Fingerprinting is a big thing in the crime world it s used to identify who was at the scene of the crime when it occurred and it gives detectives and FBI agents the ability to put the right person behind bars

Like for example the CSI and FBI use tape and a bunch of powders to get the fingerprint they need and then it's sent to their lab where it can be tested against a database the Automated Fingerprint Identification System or AFIS that has more than 173 million sets But sometimes nature can interfere with any type of fingerprints left behind like by a criminal High surface temperatures can cause the water in our fingerprints to evaporate which makes the amino acids also evaporate and denature causing the identification process to be a longer and harder one It has also been proven that extremely hot or dry temperatures can make recovering a print harder especially if the print has been left in that condition for a various amount of days Name Kamila Martins Title of Real World Problem Problem Question How does temperature affect the clarity of latent fingerprints Hypothesis The prints that are placed on a colder surface will be clearer Explanation of Hypothesis High temperatures cause water to evaporate which denatures amino acids making the print harder to see Independent Variable The temperature of the surface Dependant Variable How clear the fingerprint is going to be Controlled Variable the type of surface used and the temperature Materials wine glasses brown sugar ice cubes water glove tape brush thermometer and a piece of paper Procedure Place three clean wine glasses on a surface Label them as 0 degrees 30 degrees and 60 degrees While using gloves pour water into all three glasses and use ice cubes and or boiled water to get them to the needed temperatures Use a thermometer to check all temperatures and make sure they are correct Remove the gloves and firmly place a finger on each glass when done put the gloves back on Using the brown sugar sprinkle it over the three fingerprints Then using a brush lightly dust off the powder until you see the full fingerprint Using the tape press on the fingerprint with the sticky side and transfer it to a normal sheet of paper do with all of the fingerprints make sure each fingerprint is labeled Determine which fingerprint was the clearest and write them down with 1 being the clearest and 3 being the Repeat steps 1 8 four more times

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