Essay Example on Application of mTOR with resistance Mechanistic target of Rapamycin

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Application of mTOR with resistance Mechanistic target of rapamycin mTOR is the mediator for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle Song et al 2017 Due to energy being required this is a form of active transport It regulates cell growth and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle Resistance training at a high intensity tears apart muscle fiber and protein synthesis is required for recovery in strength hypertrophy and replenishment of intracellular amino acids Song et al 2017 After high intensity exercise there is an anabolic stimulus in human skeletal muscle During this window there is an increase in mTOR Song et al 2017 With those with untrained skeletal muscles acute high intensity interval training generates similar adaptations to endurance exercises Pugh et al 2015 However there was a significant increase in mTOR It is more practical and time efficient to do HIIT instead of endurance training when looking to build endurance of the cardiovascular in concurrent to skeletal muscle increase Pugh et al 2015 References 1 Adams O P 2013 The Impact of Brief High intensity Exercise on Blood Glucose Levels Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Targets and Therapy 6 113 122 doi 10 2147 DMSO S29222 2 Lehnen A M Angelis K D Markoski M M Schaan B D 2012 Changes in the GLUT4 Expression by Acute Exercise Exercise training and Detraining in Experimental Models Journal of Diabetes Metabolism 10 1 8 doi http dx doi org 10 4172 2155 6156 S10 002 3 Messina G Palmieri F Monda V Messina A Dalia C Viggiano A Tafuri D Moscatelli F Valenzano A Cibelli G Chieffi S Monda M 2015 Exercise Causes Muscle GLUT4 Translocation in an Insulin Independent Manner Biology and Medicine 1 2 1 4 doi 10 4172 0974 8369 1000S3007 4 Pugh J K Faulkner S H Jackson A P King J A Nimmo M A 2015 Acute Molecular Responses to Concurrent Resistance and High Intensity Interval Exercise in Untrained Skeltal Muscle Phsyiological Reports 3 4 1 14 doi 10 14814 phy2 12364 5 Richter E A Jensen P Kiens B

Kristiansen S 1998 Sacolemmal Glucose Transport and GLUT4 Translocation During Exercise are Diminished by Endurance Training American Physiological Society 274 1 E89 95 doi https doi org 10 1152 ajpendo 1998 274 1 E89 6 Song Z Moore D R Hodon N Ward C Dent J R O Leary M F Shaw A M Hamilton D L Sarkar S Gangloff Y Hornberger T A Spriet L L Heigenhauser G J Philp A 2017 Resistance Exercise Initiates Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin mTOR Translocation and Protein Complex Co localization in Human Skeletal Muscle Scientific Reports 1 5028 doi 10 1038 s41598 017 05483 x 7 Yang N J Himmer M J 2015 Getting Across the Cell Membrane An overview for Small molecules Peptides and Proteins HHS Public Access Author Manuscripts 1226 29 53 doi 10 1007 978 1 4939 2272 7_3 Translocation of GLUT 4 and mTOR during anaerobic exercise Kevin Kim Translocation 



Translocation is the movement of substances across a cell membrane Typically due to stress or necessity substances need to move across a cell membrane in order to achieve homeostasis Yang et al 2015 There are three different types of translocation that each do something differently Diffusion is when molecules passively move from a high concentration to a lower concentration until homeostasis occurs This process does not require energy Yang et al 2015 Osmosis is similar to diffusion but both solvents and solutes move from a high to low concentration Active transport moves molecules from low to high concentration This requires energy therefore ATP needs to be supplied Relation of GLUT 4 translocation and ATP GLUT 4 is a glucose transporter that is insulin regulated in cells such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscle cells and allows the transport of glucose across a plasma membrane GLUT 4 facilitates and maintains control of blood glucose levels Lehnen et al 2012 This is a form of diffusion where glucose passively moves from storage high concentration to a low concentrated area to increase glucose levels in the working cell It is important to have glucose in a low concentration area because glucose molecules create ATP and ATP is needed for muscle contraction Anaerobic exercise



 During aerobic exercise there are short term energy sources that use ATP creatine phosphate and glycolysis The transport of GLUT 4 occurs in both energy systems During maximal work insulin is spiked and fast twitch muscle fibers are recruited This type of work is not sustainable and can only be doing this type of work for zero seconds until two minutes depended on the energy system used and built up lactic acid Richter et al 1998 Application with diabetes Due to the importance of GLUT 4 regular physical activity leads to adaptation in skeletal muscle to efficiently recruit ATP increases GLUT 4 protein expression and increase mitochondria activity Messina et al 2015 Regular moderate to high intense physical activity is associated with a significant reduction of risk for type II diabetes even when weight loss is not achieved Messina et al 2015 For those with type II diabetes as little as 7 5 minutes of high intensity exercise per week is a time efficient exercise strategy that helps control blood glucose levels Adams 2013 It was shown that with high intensity exercise blood glucose decreased from midnight to 6 AM following the exercise the previous morning Adams 2013 Within a single session postprandial blood glucose has improved During a 2 week program there was an average of 13 reduction of blood glucose during the 48 to 72 hour mark after exercise and an increase of 369 for GLUT 4 protein expression Adams 2013


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