Essay Example on Applications of Nanoparticles in healthcare Applications









Applications of Nanoparticles in healthcare applications have recently become one of the most active research platforms Since the nanomaterials exhibit novel and superior properties compared to conventional materials which disclose the potential for new medical applications Extensive biomedical applications are explored by the nanoparticles domains which are predominantly either purely inorganic or organic materials Inspired by the unique characteristics novelty and wide applications of nanoparticles this work provide a comprehensive survey on performance analysis of nanomaterials in biomedical applications Analysis of new results techniques and characteristics of nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine are well described Keywords Biomedical applications Healthcare Nanomaterials Nanoparticles Nanostructures Nano Sensitizers Nano Protectors 

1 Introduction Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have much engrossed the attention of modern researchers in the current scenario In the last decade wide range of research has been done on nanomaterials in biomedical applications involving hallucination exploitation and fabrication of materials on the scale of 100 nm down to 1 nm Nanoscale particles are progressively providing major impact on human health and as they are widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications The use of nanomaterials in the biomedical field opens up many opportunities in the brawl against all kinds of cancer cardiac and tumor detection bone marrow generation and other diseases Generally the nanomaterials are categorized into three groups based on the dimension i Quantum dots zero dimensional materials having variations in shape and diameter ii Nanorods and nanowires are of one dimensional materials and iii Nanobelts nanodisks and nanosheets are in the form of two dimensional materials In this paper our focus is on nanoparticles NPs that are being used extensively in different biomedical applications Their success rate is also very high compared to other existing materials used for biomedicine 2 The properties of NPs such as ultra small size refer Figure 1 extremely high surface area to volume ratio tunable optical emission enhanced mechanical properties and super paramagnetic behavior make them turn into popular in biomedical applications NPs with dual functionality can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes There are numerous nanomaterials available for the biomedical applications Among those high quality nanomaterials with controlled size and shape will lead to tuned responses Fig 

1 Nanocomposite hydrogels based on polymeric nanoparticles The selection of nanomaterials based on their properties can be used for any suitable application Most common properties of nanomaterials needed for biomedical applications are extremely smaller size appropriate particle surface controlled shape good biocompatibility and ease of chemical modification Though a variety of nanomaterials have already surfaced biomedical applications problem it is yet a developing field depending on the application scenario and biomedicine issues Such a proliferating field requires review of nanoparticles and materials available as on date to enable researchers to choose from This paper is organized as follows Section 2 described the analysis and synthesis of Nanoparticles Section 3 explains how the Nanoparticles are involved in MRI imaging Nanoparticles as radiosensitizers and radioprotectors for radiotherapy treatment are detailed in section 4 Section 5 concludes the work with detailed inference from the related reviews 2 Analysis and synthesis of Nanoparticles In the last decade more and more NPs have been found experimented and analyzed by the researchers particularly in biomedical applications Applications of nanomaterials in biomedical and healthcare research are shown in Figure 2 Maier Hauff et al 1 used and analyzed the NPs for hyperthermia treatment Nano auroshell is proposed by Leung et al 2 that destroy the target tumor cells by releasing heat upon absorption of near infrared NIR light In 3 Silver and copper nanoparticles were produced on glass slides via magnetron sputtering The size and concentration of the nanoparticles can be easily controlled via sputter time and plasma power with magnetron sputtering Higher plasma power is also required for the synthesis of Silver nanoparticles to grow much faster than copper nanoparticles Fig 2 Applications of nanomaterials in biomedical field of research Zamperini et al 4 synthesized and characterized the pure hydroxyapatite HA and hydroxyapatite decorated with silver HA Ag nanoparticles to analyze the anti fungal effects Qin Hu et al 5 proposed that the carbon nanodots C dots are recently discovered fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with typical sizes of 10 nm 

The C dots have been reported to have excellent photophysical and chemical characteristics Cancerous tissue detection of systemic emission of chemotherapeutic agents remains a major challenge in cancer treatment To address this issue Tyler Brann et al 6 proposed a near infrared responsive oligonucleotide coated AS1411 hairpin or both gold nanoplate loaded with doxorubicin DOX which is nontoxic to cells without triggered release while being acutely toxic to cells in order to trigger DOX release after 5 minutes of laser exposure They proved that exposure of cells to untriggered DOX loaded conjugate with no laser exposure results in little to no toxicity while laser triggered release of DOX causes significant cell death as shown in Figure 3 In recent years Colonic targeted drug delivery system is widely explored to combat colon cancer Fig 3 Bright field left Green fluorescence live cells and Red fluorescence dead cells Top row GNP Hairpin DOX 1 OD no laser Bottom row GNP Hairpin DOX 1 OD with laser treatment Dicer substrate small interfering RNA DsiRNA had used for cancer therapy due to its strength in aiming specific gene of interest However its usage is limited due to rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake To tackle this Haliza Katas et al 7 applied chitosan graphene oxide CSGO nanocomposite to distribute DsiRNA efficiently into cells Furthermore pectin was used as compatibilization agent to permit specific release to the colon and save the nanocomposites from the insensitive surroundings in the stomach and small intestine Also more works have been going on to obtain higher therapeutic efficiency the innovative combination of photo therapies with other existing treatments might reduce the intolerable normal tissue toxicity while sustaining the desired tumor suppression effect

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