Essay Example on Assignment Antimicrobial Agents a Walden University









Week 8 Assignment Antimicrobial Agents a Walden University Antimicrobial Agents The treatment of infectious diseases such as chronic hepatitis human immunodeficiency virus HIV other sexually transmitted infections and foodborne infections have continued to be a challenge to the healthcare industries throughout the United States Huether McCance 2017 In this paper the various types of antimicrobial agents the differences between viral and bacterial infections and the need for proper identification of bacterial or viral infections for the right selection of antimicrobial agent will be discussed Antimicrobial agents are the chemicals that work against microbial organisms Antimicrobials include all types of agents that act against all types of microorganisms including bacteria antibacterial fungi antifungal viruses antiviral and protozoa antiprotozoal Antibacterials are the most commonly found antimicrobial agents therefore they are also most commonly known by people Sometimes the terms antibacterials is also used interchangeably with the term antimicrobials Michigan State University n d Categories of antimicrobial agents Main classes of antimicrobials are Penicillins used in the treatment of streptococcal and staphylococcal infections though limited due to widespread resistance however effective in treating many infections Arcangelo Peterson 2013 It is very active against gram positive cocci that frequently cause oral pulmonary infections and pharyngeal This is why penicillin remains the first line agent for treating syphilis and gonorrhea the two most familiar venereal diseases Penicillin generally administered only by parenteral routes and can be degraded in gastric acid Becker 2013 

Other classes of antimicrobial are amphetamines quinolones sulphonamides β lactams polypeptides tetracyclines lipopeptides aminoglycosides amphenicols macrolides oxazolidinones ansamycins streptogramins glycopeptides and lincosamides These classes have been developed after their peculiar chemical structure i e each of them has a defining structural part For example β lactams are further divided into penicillin carbapenem and cephalosporin classes 6 aminopenicillanic acid has been found to be the core of penicillin Aminoglycosides have amino sugars attached by glycosidic bonds and they include fluoroquinolones amikacin and gentamicin Polypeptides have amino acids attached by peptide bonds and they include vancomycin Aminov 2017 Among the other categories are those that are based on spectrum of activity mode of action and effect on microorganism According to the spectrum of activity there are two classes 1 Broad spectrum antibacterials such as tetracyclines fluoroquinolones and phenicols and 2 Narrow spectrum antibacterials such as sulfonamides and aminoglycosides According to the mode of action there are five major classes 1 Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis such as bacitracin and cephalosporins 2 Inhibitors of cell membrane function such as colistin and polymixin B 3 Inhibitors of protein synthesis such as macrolides and aminoglycosides 4 Inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis such as rifampin and metronidazole and 5 Inhibitors of other metabolic processes such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides According to the effect on bacteria there are two major classes

1 Bactericidal drugs such as quinolones and penicillin and 2 Bacteriostatic drugs such as macrolides and sulfonamides Michigan State University n d Differences between viral and bacterial infections Some of the most important differences between viral infections and bacterial infections are 1 the intracellular position of all viruses 2 the ease with which several viruses can be spread from one person to another by insect vectors or by respiratory routes 3 the necessity of living tissues for the multiplication of viruses i e viruses usually need a host in the form of human beings plants and or animals to live and reproduce 4 the effectiveness of several serological tests to diagnose various infections caused by viruses 5 increase in the level of immunity of the person after initial viral infection and 6 the problems of viral infections to give appropriate response to antibiotics Evans Brachman 2013 Proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to the selection of the proper antimicrobial agents The identification of viral and bacterial infections is paramount in the selection of the right antimicrobial agent to use for the treatment Arcangelo Peterson 2013 as bacterial infections are usually treated with the help of antibiotics These types of infections are either treated by killing bacteria or stopping their multiplication Whereas viral infections are usually treated with the help of the management of symptoms as for example honey is used for the treatment of cough and warm fluids such as chicken soup is used for the treatment of oral hydration Usually paracetamol is used for the treatment of fever in case of viral infections 

Although antimicrobial agents i e antivirals are used for some types of infections caused by viruses as for example antiviral medicines are used for HIV infection or cold sores Healthdirect 2016 Therefore it is imperative to identify the viral and bacterial infections so that appropriate treatment with antiviral and antibacterial agents as required could be started References Arcangelo V Peterson A Eds 2013 Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice A practical approach 3rd ed Ambler PA Lippincott Williams Wilkins Aminov R 2017 History of antimicrobial drug discovery Major classes and health impact Biochem Pharmacol 133 4 19 doi 10 1016 j bcp 2016 10 001 Becker D E 2013 Antimicrobial Drugs Anesthesia Progress 60 3 111 123 http doi org 10 2344 0003 3006 60 3 111 Evans A S Brachman P S 2013 Bacterial Infections of Humans Epidemiology and Control Springer US Healthdirect 2016 Differences between bacterial and viral infection Retrieved from https www healthdirect gov au bacterial vs viral infection Michigan State University n d Pharmacology Module Retrieved from https amrls cvm msu edu pharmacology antimicrobials tools module pdf files pharmacology

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