Essay Example on Awareness amongst consumers about the damage caused to the Environment

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In recent decades there has been a growing awareness amongst consumers about the damage caused to the environment by the haphazardly utilization of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals The world's second biggest polluter industry after oil is Textile industry which creates air water and noise pollution at every step of manufacturing The typical pollutants present in textile effluent are toxic heavy metals biochemical oxygen demand BOD chemical oxygen demand COD residual chlorine total dissolved solids TDS hazardous chemicals and dyes etc Kohli and Arya The foremost contributor of the raw effluent is textile wet processing section which includes sizing desizing scouring dyeing and finishing processes As it is also an important section of textile manufacturing in which there are value additions of aesthetic comfort and functional properties in the textiles However a huge quantity of water is used throughout the processing and gets contaminated with unfixed dyes chemicals and auxiliaries which is difficult to treat or biodegrade Thus the enduring sustainability of the textiles industry is under significant menace from a wide range of social human rights environmental and commercial governance factors Therefore there is a need to adopt eco friendly wet processing sustainable practices such as Eco friendly bleaching Eco friendly dyeing and printing Low impact dyes Natural dyes Azo Free dyes Phthalates Free Printing etc to prevent the further contamination of water with toxic substances and to lessen the environmental and social impact of textile production around the world Saxena and et al 2017 Sharma 2013 The textile processing industry is one of the major users of dyes However dyeing methods are often associated with water waste fossil fuel generated energy toxicity and contamination posing a serious threat to the environment and human health



Thus a renewed international interest for natural colored substances is increasingly intensifying as these are non toxic biodegradable and eco friendly in nature Carvalho and Santos 2015 Through the ages application of natural dyes for coloring textile material food substrate leather and wood were recorded Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs contain a thorough description of natural dyes with their process of the extraction and application in dyeing Our Atharveda also carries the description of natural dyes and the wall paintings of Ajanta Ellora and Sithannvasal exhibit the effectiveness of pre historic natural dyeing craft in India Natural dyes that can be obtained from various parts of plants including roots bark leaves flowers and fruits from insects animals origin namely cochineal kermes shellfish molluscs urine of cow and camel dung from minerals sources includes oxides of iron and tin salts like copper and iron sulphate which is used as auxiliaries or as mordants in dyeing Vankar 2016 In 1856 W H Perkin discovered first synthetic dye and subsequently upsurge in exploration production and application of synthetic dyes marked the initial step in the decline of the natural dyestuff Bechtold and Mussak 2009 



The synthetic dyes were not only accepted by textiles industries but also used by paper paint cosmetic food and pharmaceutical industries Though it has been noticed that these dyes have toxic or carcinogenic complex which have a massive impact on aquatic ecosystem and human well being Merdan and et al 2017 Due to this the use of synthetic dyes is steadily declining because of an increased environmental alertness and harmful effects to human well being like skin allergies cancers and various health issues to dyers etc As a result various azo dyes and amine releasing dyes were banned in all over the world Choudhury 2006 Thus various companies and firms have started relooking to make maximum use of natural dyes for targeting niche market Along with ecological benefits many natural dyes also have multi functional properties like flame retardant insect repellent deodorizing antimicrobial and UV properties etc Saxena and Raja 2014 Hence natural dyes with therapeutic properties gaining more interest in many fields Textile industry is also now constantly working on novel finishes to provide high value addition to textile fabrics in an eco friendly way which is highly appreciated by the consumers These finishes can be applied to apparel fabrics home textiles and technical textiles to increase their appeal to the consumer and to stimulate the growth in niche markets Paul 2015 Among all these finishes antimicrobial finished textiles have array of applications such as health and hygiene products particularly the clothes worn next to skin and numerous medical purposes such as infection control barrier material control of microorganisms etc 



With the growing demand for functional textiles there is increase in new antimicrobial textile technologies and wide range of textiles products were developed which were based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such as metal and their salts phenols triclosan quaternary ammonium compounds and organometallics Even though these synthetic antimicrobial agents confirmed significant efficacy against various micro organism but they also pretense a threat to the human well being as well as to the environment They caused side effects to human skin have action on non targeted microorganisms and pollute water bodies also Therefore eco friendly antimicrobial agents are in demand which not only lessen microbial growth on textile material but also act in accordance with legal requirements obligated by regulating agencies for protecting environment Babu and Ravindra 2015 Thus the present study were undertaken with the following aims and objectives i Eco friendly dyeing with Madder Rubia cordifolia root as a dyeing agent and rinds of Bael Aegle marmelos as a mordant ii Assessment of colour fastness properties and colour strength of dyed samples and iii Quantitative Antibacterial Activity Assessment of untreated and treated silk samples


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