Essay Example on Background to Syria Conflict








Introduction and Background to Syria Conflict Syria conflict started in 2011 with the Arab Spring and is ongoing The conflict has been plagued by violence creating humanitarian crisis territorial fragmentation sectarianism collapse of critical infrastructure radicalisation and changed of the region geopolitical situation This conflict is characterised by its inability to reach an agreement after several failed peace talks Its involvement of many actors makes it more complicated Conflicting issues positions and interest of the actors have added the complexity of the conflict In December 2017 eighth round of Syria peace talks organised by United Nations in Geneva ended without a deal and United Nations mediator Staffan de Mistura admitted to reporters that dialogues did not truly occur and the two week was an excellent opportunity missed On October 29 30 2017 the seventh Astana peace process initiated by Russia Turkey and Iran focused on humanitarian crisis and act as supplement to the brokered Geneva peace talks Prior to this peace talk were the fifth July 2017 and sixth round September 2017 Astana peace talks focused on establishing de escalation zones in Syria Before Astana peace talks were Geneva Peace talks with latest the Geneva III peace talk of 2016 organised by ISSG and mediated by United Nations to establish a ceasefire Before 2016 Geneva peace talks was 2015 Syria peace talks in Vienna Given the falter peace talks the present peace process in Syria conflict is in a deadlock with continue fighting humanitarian crisis shattered economy and public services

This essay analyses the various actors to the conflict key issues actor s positions and interest and options and roadmap to overcome the conflict __________________________________ 1 The Syrian conflict A system conflict analysis ARK Group DMCC 2016 2 Golden Opportunity Missed Syria Peace Talks Falter Again NICK CUMMING BRUCEDEC 3 Latest Syria peace talks in Astana focus on humanitarian issues Assel Sanubaldina November 2017 4 Radio farad news September 14 2017 Sixth round of Syria peace talks begins in Astana 5 The diploma Catherine Putz July 2017 fifth round of Astana talks end without agreement 6 THE PEACE TALKS ON THE SYRIAN CONFLICT MAIN DEVELOPMENTS AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE VIENNA 2015 AND GENEVA III 2016 MEETINGS Douglas de Quadros Rocha42 Isabela Souza Julio43 Patrícia Graeff Machry44 2 Actors Analysis and Relationship Mapping 2 1 Local Actors 2 2 Pro Regime Actors 2 2 1 Syrian Government Syria government has consistently considered itself as defender against domestic terrorists This became more prevail with the existence of ISIS as al Assad government has sought to establish itself as protector of Syrian people against Islamic State Syrian regime allies are Russian Hezbollah Iranian governments and which support the regime financially militarily and politically Syria regime enjoys close relationship with China and Iraq There exist Socio Economic Loyalist Elites and religion minorities with special ties to Assad s family These are Shia Isma ili Alawites and various Christian minorities which organised self defence by sponsoring NDF groups 2 2 2 Pro Regime Military Actors Syrian Armed Forces SAF largest organised force comprises of army air force and a small nervy which provide 

Assad regime with armed support It challenge militarily the oppositions and execute government strategy of degrading moderate oppositions by demoralising its civilian supporters SAF enables the regime to maintain claim of sovereignty over the territory and regain future control over Syria SAF receives strong military assistance and manpower from Hezbollah Iranian backed militias and Russian National Defence Forces NDF a Paramilitary group founded from Ba th party or regime supporters It man checkpoints defends loyalist neighbourhood lines patrol areas and assist occasionally SAF in front line missions NDF receives military training from Hezbollah and Iran __________________________ 7 The Syrian Conflict Resources May 2017 http guides library illinois edu Syria 8 Ibid 2 3 Syria Oppositions Free Syrian Army FSA is a nationwide resistance organization to initiate military operations against Assad government protect peaceful protesters and target military checkpoints Its allies are US UK Turkey Qatar Jordan and Saudi Arabia FSA is in conflict with SFA NDF Iran Russia Assad regime and religion minorities There is Southern Front 2014 it consolidate military operations and command structure of 49 southern opposition brigades in their attempt to topple Assad s regime It denounces extremism and sectarianism in Syria Its allies are United States United Kingdom Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates and Jordan It enjoys good relationship with former Al Qaeda affiliate Hay at Tahrir al Sham formerly known as Al Nusra notwithstanding they witnessed tense relations in 2014

The Syrian Democratic Forces SDF coalition of Christian Arab Kurdish Syrian and Turkmen groups It was built in late 2015 by U S recruitment of Syrian Arab Coalition to fight side by side with YPG and other local militias SDF is in conflict with ISIS FSA and the regime It enjoys very good relationship with U S A It is in discord with Turkey since Turkey considers SDF a terrorist organisation due to its ties with Kurdistan Workers Party PKK 2 4 Islamist Actors ISIS it is known for its political ambitions indiscriminate killing of civilians brutality and savvy the use media It is hostile toward all other entity that does not subscribe to its interpretation It wants to create a global caliphate ISIS is a common enemy and in conflict to almost all actors in the conflict particularly the range of opposition actors Kurdish groups and Syrian regime ISIS presence in Syria has influence disproportionately international actors positions on the conflict __________________ 9 The Free Syrian Army A decentralised insurgent brand Charles Lister November 2016 10 Mapping Southern Syria's Armed Opposition Osama al Koshak October 2015 11 Ibid 12 Stanford s Mapping Militants Project s Profile of the Southern Front 2010 2017 HTTP WEB STANFORD EDU GROUP MAPPINGMILITANTS CGI BIN GROUPS VIEW 645 13 Ibid 14 The road to Ar Raqqah Background on the Syrian democratic forces Genevieve Casagrande November2016 15 Ibid

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