Essay Example on Bangladesh is situated in a region which is highly vulnerable to Flood








Study justification Bangladesh is situated in a region which is highly vulnerable to flood To the north west of the country the world s largest mountains the Himalayas is located Around 80 of the country involves the combined delta of the Ganges the Brahmaputra and the Meghna river basin with a total catchment area of 1 8 million km2 There are as many as 700 tributaries of these rivers The ultimate effect of the rivers is next to that of Amazon Islam 2011 The most severe flood occurs during the months of July and August and regular river floods affect 20 of the country increasing up to 68 in extreme years The floods of 1988 1998 2004 and 2017 were particularly catastrophic responsible for large scale destruction and loss of lives Land use human activities are directly related to land making use of its resources or having an impact upon it Land cover is the physical characteristics of the land while land use is a basis of human activities under a socio economic context Flood hazard maps can be used as an effective tool for water resource as well as urban planning by design engineers to assess the vulnerability of the infrastructure and residents of that area to flood events Fernandez and Lutz 2010 Approximately 40 of the total natural disasters worldwide are due to flooding Ohl and Tapsell 2000 The land use pattern change is the main reason for ecosystem change Waroux 2011 Owrangi et al 2014 Although the flood hazard disasters caused by natural calamities cannot be prevented the magnitude of impact can be reduced Dewan et al 2006

A small intensity of rainfall coinciding with high tide causes a major part of the northeastern Bangladesh upper Meghna Basin to get flooded during the rainy season because it is influenced by the tidal effects To overcome these difficulties and for the effective design of drainage system the flood-prone areas in the catchment have to be identified For the flood mitigation and evacuation system planning preparation of flood hazard maps for the maximum flood extent of different flow conditions is necessary The impact of the land use pattern change and rainfall on flood hydrographs for different return periods considering best adaptation options for flood hazard mitigation have not yet been systematically investigated in the upper Meghna basin of Bangladesh Therefore it is needed to investigate the impacts of land-use change and rainfall on the flood peak discharge and flood hydrographs for different return periods and needed to adopt best mitigation options to minimize flood hazards for irrigated agriculture in the upper Meghna basin of Bangladesh Delineation of the basin and sub-basin boundary

Use and it's Effects model The future land use will be simulated in 2035 according to variation trend of land use patterns change between 1997 and 2016 The hydrological soil will be surveyed from the soil map of 1997 and 2016 years will be collected from different Government organizations in Bangladesh Assessment of flood hydrograph and peak discharge The HEC HMS model includes basin model precipitation model and control model The basin model contains hydrologic elements such as the delineation of sub-basin sub basin area stream length elevation and junction etc will be developed by using HEC GeoHMS The proposed basin model will be then exported to the HEC HMS model In the proposed study kinematic wave method will be used for flood routing The observed streamflow and rainfall data for different return periods will be used as input to the HEC HMS model At each junction, the flood hydrograph and peak discharge will be determined under land use pattern change and flow conditions

The Digital Elevation Model DEM will be used for the delineation of the river basin boundary in the proposed study The surveyed data of river basin will be collected for generating a perfect geometric profile along the cross sections of the river basin From the DEM the stream networks will be developed that may coincide with river alignment position The basin sub basin and drainage networks will be generated using the Arc GIS extension of HEC GeoHMS software based on the DEM data Thus basin and sub basin delineation will be carried out Human activities changes scenarios and hydrological soil In the proposed study land use patterns change will be assessed between 1997 and 2016 The land use patterns data may be collected from the land use map developed by toposheet and remote sensing satellite images The land use map for 1997 will be considered as the base map when it will be compared with land use patterns change The observed land use patterns are the paddy field woodland water body dry land and vegetation The future human activities on the agricultural land will be predicted in the river basin according to the trends of land use patterns from past to present using the CLUE Conversion of Land

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