Essay Example on Beams And Their Applications








Beams And Their Applications Definition Beams are the structural member used for bearing loads It is typically used to resist vertical loads shear forces and bending moments Types of Beams Beams can be divided into many types depends on three main categories They are as follows 1 Based on geometry 1 Straight beam Beam with straight profile 2 Curved beam Beam with curved profile 3 Tapered beam Beam with tapered cross section 4 Based on the shape of cross section 1 I beam Beam with I cross section This beam types have I cross section as shown in figure It has high resistance of bending 2 T beam Beam with T cross section It has T cross section as shown in figure 3 C beam Beam with C cross section 2 Based on equilibrium conditions 1 Statically determinate beam For a statically determinate beam equilibrium conditions alone can be used to solve reactions A beam is called determinate beam if it can be analyze by the basic equilibrium condition The support reaction can be found by using basic equilibrium condition These conditions are Summation of all horizontal forces is zero Summation of all vertical forces is zero Summation of all moments is zero Example Simply supported beam Cantilever beam etc 2 Statically indeterminate beam For a statically indeterminate beam equilibrium conditions are not enough to solve reactions Additional deflections are needed to solve reactions If the beam cannot be analysis by using basic equilibrium condition known as statically indeterminate beam

The end reaction find out by using basic equilibrium condition with combination of other conditions like strain energy method virtual work method etc Example Continuous beam fixed beam 3 Based on the type of support 1 Cantilever beam 2 Overhanging beam 3 Continuous beam 4 Fixed beam Classification of beams based on the type of support is discussed in detail below 1 Simply supported beam A simply supported beam is a type of beam that has pinned support at one end and roller support at the other end Depending on the load applied it undergoes shearing and bending It is one of the simplest structural elements in existence The following image illustrates a simply supported beam Simply Supported Beam SSB 2 Cantilever beam A cantilever beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end It can be seen in the image below Cantilever Beam 3 Overhanging beam an overhanging beam is a beam that has one or both end portions extending beyond its supports It may have any number of supports If viewed in a different perspective it appears as if it is has the features of simply supported beam and cantilever beam Overhanging Beam 4 Continuous beam A continuous beam has more than two supports distributed throughout its length It can be understood well from the image below Continuous Beam 5 Fixed beam As the name suggests fixed beam is a type of beam whose both ends are fixed It does not allow vertical movement and rotation of the beam It is only under shear stress and no moment produces in this beams It is used in trusses and other structure Applications of Beams Steel I Beams The best known type of construction beam is the I beam so named because of its shape when viewed from the side reminiscent of the capital letter I I beams are usually used in commercial construction in everything from skyscrapers to stadiums but can also be used in residential construction Hip Beams Hip beams provide support for other load bearing beams in residential construction

The other beams branch off of the hip beam at the same angle Hip beams are critical parts of most home roofs Flitch Beam Flitch beams are hybrids of wood and metal usually steel layered atop one another The wooden sections allow the beams to be nailed to other structures while the metal parts provide greater strength and weight bearing capabilities Another advantage of flitch beams is that they are less expensive than beams constructed solely of metal Laminated Lumber Beams Laminated lumber beams are made when several pieces of lumber are stacked atop one another This lumber is almost always 2 inches in thickness These types of beams are often used in public buildings Laminated Veneer Lumber Beams These beams are similar in concept to laminated lumber beams They are made of 1 3 4 inch thick pieces of plywood They are sometimes used to support exterior walls in buildings Box Beams Box beams are made by taking a piece of plywood and nailing and or gluing it to pieces of 2 by 4 or 2 by 6 lumber in essence created a long box like structure Timber Beams Timber beams are the most basic and most ancient form of beams They are simply made from the trunk of a cut down tree and are used in traditional log cabins as well as building with post and beam style construction Cantilever Beams Cantilever beams are used in bay windows bridges and balconies They manage to redistribute the weight from whatever structure they are holding up to the main structural beams in the house or building to which they are connected H Beams H beam looks similar to the shape of the I beam and there are some advantages to its design The main difference between I beam and H beam shapes is the flange which is wider in h beams They also have a bigger surface area on the cross section of the beam

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