Essay Example on Before industrial revolution most of work was performed in the same Community









Before industrial revolution most of work was performed in the same community surroundings where people lived by known people i.e you knew the person who made your shoes or clothes or house and furniture etc this as pre industrial era when you socialized with these people and helped them when time of need Mid 19th century almost half the working people were self employed however at beginning of 20th century two thirds of working population was wage earners This was primarily due to reduction in agricultural work and the rise of industrialization The industrial era created the organizations and alienated work from the society There was no real contact between the organization where employees worked and the society where they lived Work was no longer a vital part of community life as it restricted within specific buildings areas and times 

One hypothesis was that motivation only became an issue because of separation of work from the community life Sievers 1984 As a consequence motivation theories have become surrogates for the search for meaning Sievers 1984 In this era Industrial employees received pay for the work they performed and owners received dividends based on the profits of the company and there was minimal or no contact between owners and employees The hierarchy system created disconnection between workers and executives and the competition forced workers against each other as they fought for better positions up in the hierarchy resulting minimal or no contact between executives and workers And as work became more separated it loosed its meaning as an integral aspect of human existence The Evolution of the Work life Movement Frederick Taylor who was well known for his studies was considered de humanizing because it gave strict control to management over worker and their performance Many people actually considered the first humanist of the industrial revolution as anti humanist Peter Drucker asserted Taylor among all his contemporaries truly deserved the title humanist Weisboard 1985 page 5 As he believed in allocating work according to the abilities and encouraging workers for suggestions and believed in providing training to workers providing feedback to them In short Taylor sought humane and sensible antidotes to the degradation of work which like smog and pollution was an early by product of the industrial revolution Weisboard p 5 The first movement to focus on the human in organizations was group dynamics movement and t group laboratory training in particular 

The National Training Laboratories in the UK Tavistock worked for the recognition of individual and group behavior French and Bell 1999 Bion and Trist from Tavistock had regular contact with Likert Argryis and others in the states and the journal Human Relations was a joint publication of Tavistock and MIT This movement later transformed into the organization development concept which has always had the individual at the center of their value system These studies suggested that the concerns about self actualization meaning race relations intrinsic motivation and potential are more important than either controlling or analyzing behavior It seems that the Quality of Work Life QWL movement have emerged out of these movements This movement of QWL was about the development of organizational programs that supported the welfare of employees Passmore 1985 With involvement of the unions as well as management this movement covered all the aspects affecting human beings on work like security and safety to participation and meaningful work During 70 s and 80 s workforce which was very aggressive to certain corporate policies caused various negative impacts like increased absenteeism and turnover costs In 1972 At Arden House New York an international conference was held where the term Quality of Working Life was introduced and the International Council for Quality of Working Life ICQWL was formed to support encourage research work on Quality of Working Life Between the years 1972 and 1980 the concern for QWL gained momentum QWL researches in Canada were gaining attention and various meetings were organized for the discussion on the concept 

The very first conference on quality of work life was organized in Toronto in August 1981 which witnessed large number of participants from all areas including managers union representatives and academicians It was stated by Jenkins 1981 that the conference in Toranto gave a very well demonstration of Quality of Work Life being an important issue of the organizations and the importance of improving quality of work life of employees 1 3 2 Meaning and definitions of Quality of Work life Meaning of Quality of Work Life It is difficult to define the term Quality of work life as it s very broad concept with many perceptions about it Many authors agree that it is difficult to give clear definition of the term Quality of work life and have tried to summarize about the concept in different ways by giving different definitions of QWL It is a combination of three words namely quality work and life which are interrelated with each other Understanding all three terms will help in giving a better meaning to the concept Life When designing the term QWL it is necessary to explain the term life There are many definitions of life For the proposed model the definition from a Merriam Webster dictionary defines life as the sequence of physical and mental experiences that make up the existence of an individual Marriam Webster dictionary 1982 From the definition it can be inferred that life as a whole consists of many domains like religious life personal life sport life education life and one of them is work life All other domains other than work life is considered as non work life Tej et al 2012

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