Belonging of Women in City. İstanbul Technical University Faculty of Architecture Departmen of Architecture Abstract For centuries the societies are governed by patriarchal system The system accepted by all gives some functions man and woman related their behavior place and roles in social life and defines women s place as home With the capitalist system woman was imprisoned as unpaid labor on house However in the world through the feminist movements in Turkey through given rights and important to women during new state construction there is an increase the number of women which working in professional business Although the sense of women s place is home is destroyed slowly in modern era and women become more in city the movement area is more limited if we compared with men Women can not use the main right to the city which are emphasized by Lefebvre full and complete use of urban space and the right of participation to production process the urban space in any scale However most of time while the daily practice women do not feel belonging in this man made cities which are constantly changing cities designed without considering women in the urban design process In this paper s aim is discuss the issue of womes s sense of belonging in city by looking daily experience of women in cities
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Keywords Women Belonging Right to the city Gendered city issues Introduction First of all we should know how started the belief of woman s place is home In the late 19th century with the industrial revolution capitalism started to lead the people s life by using patriarchy As the revolution process continued housing has been reorganized and made to support the new system In 1919 slogan of Industrial Housing Associates was Good homes make contented workers Wood 1919 This house s aim has been to encourge the man to be own him house for maintain his family s livelihood Hence he had the debt that he has to earn money and to pay regularly This cituation was beneficial for major corportaions because the need of regularly labour A responsible man from a family wife and children can not object to his wages or leave from job easily because he has to pay probably a morgage credit or other needs of house and family in most of life he is used as cheap labor power In this point woman enters the circuit Woman s role is provide the continuity of capitalist cycle The male worker would return from his day in the factory or office to a private domestic environment secluded from the tense world of work in an industrial city characterized by environmental pollution social degradation and personal alienation and he would enter a serene dwelling whose physical and emotional maintenance would be the duty of his wife Hayden 1980 Hence women does cleaning cooking to care with her husband and child and other work in the house as an unpaid labor power Man has became the manager of house If we look at the general framework patriarchy made the man a paid slave and woman an unpaid slaves Today owing to feminist movement and work for women s rights there is largely increase on the number of women in social and economic life but this ratio can be different in rural and urban areas In our day there is lots of women in school as a student and an educater in professional work life in politics in urban life Although this there is not an appropriate environment for women Urban area city can be seperated as private and public area
Public area is mostly common area such as parks streets city squares seasides beaches etc and these areas open and accesible for using of all people On the other hand private area is our personal space it may with family or alone such as house In this areas for high quality life and maintain daily experience efficiently people need feel comfort belonging and commitment in their environment home building street neighbourhood city centre city urban parks Cities changing constantly with urban transformation with man made urban design and this cities are suitable for using of men Most of time women are not feel comfort safety or belong to this cities However according to Lefebvre a city is an artwork and it should be created with the participation of the artist who are living in the city their daily life routines and for their needs people should be in production and decision making process Fenster This is one of the most important rights from Lefebvre s concept of the right to the city Because to provide for participation of women to production in city creates the sense of belonging to city Belonging The word of belonging is used several time because of the sexist cities women can not belong to city is said But how it is made people belong to somewhere To undestand and discuss the women s sense of belonging in city we need to know belonging ways to place or city The sense of belonging way can not be explained with one and true definition According to Fenster a sense of belonging can be perceive in different ways such as individual intimate and private or formal public oriented recognition of belonging 2004 In this chapter form of belonging is defined with individual and formal sides The common belonging form is citizenship as a formal way The most known citizenship is defined as equality and homogenios community it is is related with communities identity However according to lots of analyst several definition of citizenship can affect negatively some people group such as womens childs immigrants or homosexual people because of forms of exclusion and lack of belonging
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