Bioenergy is an alternate energy source which can be earth friendly and efficient There are different types of alternate energy like solar panels wind power biodiesel etc there are different generations and feedstocks for biofuels There are many advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels and alternative energy Biofuels come in different generations and have various feedstocks 1 The 1st generation biofuels are produced from food crops such as wheat and sugar For biodiesel oil is abstracted from food crops or producing bioethanol through fermentation As most biofuels are produced from food there s much debate that land is being used for fuel instead of food Demand for biofuels has lead to an increase in the volumes of crops being diverted away from the global food market 1 The second generation biofuels are produced from feedstock that isn't used for human consumption The feedstock includes wood organic waste and agriculture residues 2 These biofuels have an increased efficiency that use a majority of the biomass feedstock avoiding the waste seen in the 1st generation Life cycle assessments of these biofuels have indicated that they will increase net energy gains overcoming another problem of the first generation The third generation of biofuels is based on improvements in the production of biomass Algae is the energy source in this generation 1 3 Algae is a plant that can be grown in wastewater open pond and closed loop systems There is a disadvantage to this generation of biofuel as algae requires a large amount of water nitrogen and phosphorus
The fuels that can be extracted from algae are Biodiesel Butanol Gasoline Methane Ethanol Vegetable oil Jet fuel 3 Different generations have different feedstocks and some might have problems depending on what generation For the 1st generation the feedstock might not be available in all country s as depending on weather it may affect the growth of crops The feedstock for 2nd generation can be used in most country s as non food crops are easier to get hold of and you can use waste Algae for the 3rd generation can be used in most countries as only waste water is needed for it Bioenergy is beneficial as it can generate heat and electricity It emits little to no greenhouse gases benefitting the earth and living organisms It can help to stabilise soils improve soil fertility and reduce erosion It can be stored with minimum energy loss Bioenergy is a useful way of managing waste disposal as 2nd generation biofuels use human waste It is renewable and easily accessible as feedstocks are inexpensive and waste can be used 4 Bioenergy can provide air quality benefits Biofuels are biodegradable avoiding pollution Bioenergy helps stimulate regional and rural economic development and employment by providing new income streams from bioenergy and biomass production More jobs are available for growing and harvesting biomass transporting handling construction maintenance of bioenergy plants
As bioenergy uses waste it reduces energy costs it can help build resilience in agriculture timber and food processing industries Using waste saves environmental and economic costs of disposal in landfills and reduces contamination Rural and regional and security can be enhanced by providing a domestic energy source that can run continuously 5 LCA is used in product research and development when footprint is important to the future marketing or cost of a product It is mostly used in business and helps decision making for manufacturers and consumers 6 One of the problems with using an LCA is not everything is in detail For example the input could have its own whole LCA and things which are added on at the end have their own Not everything is taken into consideration Physical and Chemical Properties BIODIESEL Biodiesel is a liquid which can be a golden dark brown depending on the feedstock Biodiesel has a high boiling point and low vapor pressure The flash point is 170 degrees Celsius and higher than petroleum diesel Its density is 0 88g cm³ making it less than water
The calorific value for biodiesel is 37 27 MJ L 9 lower than normal petrodiesel It has a distillation temperature of 210 degrees Celsius Biodiesel fuel influences copper based materials and zinc tin lead and cast iron Stainless steels and aluminium aren't affected by biofuels 7 1 University of Edinburgh Energy from waste and wood http energyfromwasteandwood weebly com generations of biofuels html 17 September 2017 2 Open Cleantech Biofuels 1st 2nd and 3rd Generation http resources opencleantech com our blog biofuels 1st 2nd and 3rd generation June 30 2015 3 http biofuel org uk third generation biofuels html be energy efficient 4 https www originenergy com au blog about energy advantages and disadvantages of bioenergy html Advantages and Disadvantages of bioenergy 2 February 2015 5 Victoria State Government benefits of bioenergy https www energy vic gov au renewable energy bioenergy benefits of bioenergy 6 Athena Sustainable materials institute Who does LCA and why http www athenasmi org resources about lca who does lca why 7 Berkeley biodiesel Properties of Biodiesel Fuel http www berkeley biodiesel org useful guide understand html
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