Essay Examples on BREXIT

Discuss how the European Union, EU law is enforced with a focus on the UK Key enforcement mechanisms.

This essay will discuss how the European Union, EU law is enforced with a focus on the UK Key enforcement mechanisms that are used by the EU will be discussed such as supremacy. Finally, potential deals that the UK could do post-Brexit, such as Norway will be discussed. One key mechanism is supremacy. Supremacy was discussed in Van Gend en Loos. The court stated that the Community constitutes a new legal order in international law for whose benefit the States have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields. However, Costa v ENEL held that where national law is found to be incompatible with EU law, then EU law shall prevail. This was seen in the UK in Macarthys v Smith in which Lord Denning stated the treaty takes priority over anything in our English statute whenever there is any inconsistency. Community law has priority. Thus backing up Costa in that EU law is supreme over UK law. Another mechanism is direct effect Eur lex states that the principle of direct effect enables individuals to immediately invoke a European provision before a national or European court. Eur lex goes on to state that the direct effect principle, therefore, ensures the application and effectiveness of European law in EU countries.

2 pages | 418 words
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What will happen to Low-Cost Airlines in Europe after the Brexit

The United Kingdom’s airline loss is others gain you may think but not so. These agreements work both ways and other members of the European Common Aviation Area and those with third party agreements lose their privileges to fly into the United Kingdom. Without proper thought, this could prove to be a lose-lose situation for all. A vocal campaigner for Remain in the referendum was Michael O Leary, Chief Executive of RyanAir. He made his views well known during the campaign comparing Brexit to armageddon and stating As the UK’s largest airline RyanAir is absolutely clear that the UK economy and its future growth prospects are stronger as a member of the European Union than they are outside of the EU. And he has continued to make the case since the result urging the United Kingdom to ignore the result and remain in Europe. Ryanair was founded in 1984 and its first flight in 1985 was a 15 seater from Ireland to London Gatwick. It has seen its passenger numbers rise form 5 000 in that first year to 119 977 801 in 2016. It boasts a fleet of 400 aircraft over 1 800 routes and in 2017 88 of its flights arrived on time. Safe to say it is one of the main competitors in the low-cost carrier world in fact last year it flew more international passengers than any of its competitors. Ryanair has seen its adjusted profit after tax rise steadily in the past 5 years as follows Year M Variance from the previous year 2017 1 316 6 2016 1 242 43 2015 866 7 66 2014 522 8 8 2013 569 3 2. It is clear to see that they are still a force to be reckoned with but do have their competition. Michael Porter’s five forces of competition framework show us that there are five forms of competition to consider the existing competition, competition from substitutes threat of entry supplier bargaining power and customer bargaining power.

2 pages | 600 words
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Britain leaves the European Union making reference to certain countries

Throughout this piece, the focus shall be on the potential agreements that could be reached once the UK leaves the EU making reference to certain countries such as Norway and Switzerland, who have alternate agreements to ensure they comply with their respective laws. As well as this the key mechanisms the EU enforces shall be discussed, these include direct effect supremacy indirect effect and state liability. A key mechanism is a direct effect that is regarded as one of the twin pillars of European law. The EUR Lex website states it is the power to directly invoke European acts before national and European courts. The direct effect may apply to Treaty articles secondary legislation such as regulations directives and decisions and finally treaties with third countries In Van Gend en Loos according to the EUR Lex website the Court stated that European law not only engenders obligations for EU countries but also rights for individuals. Direct effects intensity is twofold vertical and horizontal. The vertical direct effect according to Practical Law means the EU legislation can be enforced against the state or emanation of the state and can be viewed in Defrenne v SABENA which is a case involving gender-equal pay.
2 pages | 402 words
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