Throughout this piece, the focus shall be on the potential agreements that could be reached once the UK leaves the EU making reference to certain countries such as Norway and Switzerland, who have alternate agreements to ensure they comply with their respective laws. As well as this the key mechanisms the EU enforces shall be discussed, these include direct effect supremacy indirect effect and state liability. A key mechanism is a direct effect that is regarded as one of the twin pillars of European law. The EUR Lex website states it is the power to directly invoke European acts before national and European courts. The direct effect may apply to Treaty articles secondary legislation such as regulations directives and decisions and finally treaties with third countries In Van Gend en Loos according to the EUR Lex website the Court stated that European law not only engenders obligations for EU countries but also rights for individuals. Direct effects intensity is twofold vertical and horizontal. The vertical direct effect according to Practical Law means the EU legislation can be enforced against the state or emanation of the state and can be viewed in Defrenne v SABENA which is a case involving gender-equal pay.