A Moderated Mediation Model of Resilience and Mindfulness Personality and Individual Differences 104 137 142 DOI 10 1016 j paid 2016 07 040 This study examines the relationship between the effects of resilience and mindfulness on bullying victimization and symptoms of depression 448 Chinese children grades 3 6 9 13 years old were recruited for the study Participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked how often they had been bullied at school during the past few months They answered on a 5 point scale from 1 not at all 5 several times a week This measured the prevalence of bullying victimization Depression levels were then assessed using the Chinese Version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale for Children CED DS Children rated 20 items on a scale of 1 never 4 always Answers were summed and averaged with higher scores indicative of severe depressive symptoms Resilience was next measured using 12 items from the Child and Youth Resilience Measure Participants answered 1 no 2 sometimes or 3 yes Scores were summed and averaged with higher scores meaning higher resilience Finally participants completed the Child Adolescent Mindfulness Measure 10 items were answered on a 5 point scale where 0 never 4 always Answers were summed and averaged with higher scores meaning a higher level of mindfulness
The third sample consisted of 545 males and 498 females 5 6 and 11 months who enrolled in three public health departments and had informed parental consent Parents and daycare teachers were given questionnaires that assessed their judgements about children s language competence A series of tests were given to all participants to assess pronunciation grammar vocabulary speech comprehension and phonological short term memory With regards to the demographic and sociolinguistic characteristics of the sample there were no differences in the chi square values of variables that would influence the language development of participants The numerical results of the study showed that girls performed better on most tests In examining the results for each sample this discrepancy decreased with age According to the questionnaires given to parents and daycare teachers indicated that a greater proportion of boys were classified as requiring educational support According to parents boys of all ages were found to have more language impairments disorders and pathologies than girls They were also found to need medical examination more often than girls This finding may have been due to the fact boys showed lower compliance than girls Ndetei David M Mutiso Victoria Maraj Anika Anderson Kelly K Musyimi Christine McKenzie Kwame 2016 Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward Mental Illness Among Primary School Children in Kenya Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 51 73 80 DOI 10 1007 s00127 015 1090 6 This study seeks to investigate stigmatizing attitudes expressed by children towards those with mental illness in the developing world 5 469 primary school children from the Eastern Province of Kenya participated in the study However 884 failed to respond in at least one variable of interest Therefore 4 585 responses from the surveys were included in the final sample Participants were typically between 6 12 years of age The endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes was assessed using the Stereotype Agreement subscale from the Self Stigma of Mental Illness Scale
The subscale required participants to answer 1 strongly disagree 9 strongly agree for a set of 10 statements believed to be associated with people suffering from mental illness The score was added up with a higher score meaning a greater endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes The average score for the Stereotype Agreement subscale was 55 4 slightly higher than the midpoint of all possible scores from a range of 10 90 Results showed that as age increased stigmatizing scores decreased Boys scored higher than girls which is supportive of previous research suggesting the tendency of males to hold more stigmatizing beliefs than females Socio demographic information was also examined in relationship to stigmatizing scores Data showed that those who identified as African Traditional Religion had lower scores than those who identified as Catholic It also found that children who live in rural environments endorse more stigmatizing beliefs as compared to those in urban environments There was no statistical significance between the employment status of parents and the endorsement of stigmatizing beliefs
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