Essay Example on Cardiovascular disease is term that describes all Diseases

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Cardiovascular disease is term that describes all diseases of the heart and circulation ref it includes everything from conditions that are diagnosed at birth or inherited to developed conditions such as coronary heart disease atrial fibrillation heart failure and stroke Around 42 000 people under the age of 75 in the United Kingdom UK die from cardiovascular disease each year ref Coronary heart disease is the most common type of cardiovascular disease Coronary heart disease of the coronary vesicles causing stenosis and destruction of coronary circulation Coronary maybe atheroma or non atheroma Coronary Heart Disease occurs when arteries become narrowed by build up of atheroma a fatty material within their walls These arteries supply oxygen rich blood to the heart muscles pain or discomfort maybe felt due to the restriction this is called angina ref if a significant blockage within the artery occurs this may lead to myocardial infarction heart attack ref There are 2 3 million people living with coronary heart disease within the United Kingdom UK over 60 which are male

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This aim of essay is to discuss current coronary heart disease risk factors and treatments within the United Kingdom UK Many different risk factors increase and inseminates like hood of developing coronary heart disease These risks can be broadly categorised into medical lifestyle and other risk factors Some risk factors such as family history can not be modified while other risk factors like high blood pressure can be modified with treatment High blood pressure increases the risk of damage to the artery walls Damaged walls have increased risk of atheroma formation causing a further increase in blood pressure Atheroma may also cause blood clots which can block the flow of blood to the heart muscle and result in myocardial infarction ref people with high blood pressure are up to 3 times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke ref Individuals with diabetes have twice the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and there are currently 6 3 million adults in the United Kingdom UK diagnosed with diabetes ref High blood cholesterol and poor diet are also a medical risk factor for coronary heart disease A blood cholesterol level above 210mg per 100cm3 is considered high and increases the risk of coronary heart disease ref 



This is because cholesterol is one of the main constituents of fatty deposits that cause atheroma A diet high in saturated fats is associated with high blood cholesterol levels A diet high in salt also increases the risk of coronary heart disease because it increases the risk of high blood pressure Cigarette smoking physical inactivity and poor diet are modifiable lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease More than 1 in 6 adults smoke cigarettes in the United Kingdom UK there s over 8 million adults Both carbon monoxide and nicotine found in cigarette smoke increase the risk of coronary heart disease Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin and reduces the amount of oxygen transported in the blood and so reduces the amount of oxygen available to tissue Smoking also decreases the amount of antioxidant to the blood these are important for protecting cells from cell damage Fewer antioxidants means that cell damage in the coronary artery walls is more likely and this can lead to atheroma s formation Nearly 100 000 smokers in the United Kingdom UK die from smoking related causes each year ref Other risk factors for example outdoor air pollution contributes to an estimated 40 000 premature deaths in the United Kingdom UK each year with a significant impact on cardiovascular health Other risk factors such as age gender family history ethnicity and obesity can also increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease

 Treatments Coronary heart disease is a progressive disease and there is current no way reverse plaque build up but the process can be slowed down by medication and lifestyle changes and treatment can manage symptoms Non paralogical or lifestyle changes include weightless low fat diet exercise reduced smoking and modification of risk factors Medical treatments are extensive and include thrombolytics antiplatelet beta blockers calcium chemicals angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid lowering agents Interventional cardiological and surgeries such as balloon angioplasty stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery may levigate the symptoms Angioplasty Conclusion In conclusion in this essay I have discussed modern day risk factors and intervention treatments for coronary heart disease within the United Kingdom UK at this current time Risk factors are varied and maybe modified or non modifiable And although current treatment cannot reverse the plaque formation it can reduce symptoms and life span Genetics is a very promising current area of research for coronary heart disease Genetic informatics which will bring together masses of data will aim to understand how hundreds of small genetic differences can combine to put individuals at increased risk of coronary heart disease Within coronary heart disease current research inducible pluripotent stem cells technology as enabling a patient's own heart cells to be grown This maybe a future treatment with a drug that is specifically designed to an individual heart cells and


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