Essay Example on Chapter two was about Psychological science








Chapter two was about Psychological science This chapter mainly discusses how most psychologist use research to conduct their data One type of research they use is the scientific method Using the scientific method helps psychologists have a better understanding of humans animals and create new knowledge The textbook definition of scientific method is to set assumptions rules and procedures used to do empirical research We should all know the process of the scientific method because we learned it in elementary school First we ask a question second we identify background research from our question third we establish a hypothesis fourth we test an experiment fifth we analyze our data and lastly we construct a conclusion The data psychologists collect are both objectively and empirical Objectively means psychologists don t have to depend on other psychologists to interpret their data they can just be open minded and make their own inference on their own While empirical means demonstrable data that you have collected We also learned how our intuition can be inaccurate Our explanations for behavior can change over time Most human beings are known to be more reliable to their imagination and that influences their idea to make inaccurate decisions Like a car salesman for example When we go to a car dealership we have that idea in our heads on what car we want but if the dealership doesn t have it they try to persuade you to buy another car instead So you get frustrated because they re rambling off about some car you re not interested in and just agree to get the car the dealer persuaded you to buy Another example is the cocktail effect The cocktail effect is when you re talking to a group of people and suddenly you re just paying attention and only listening to one specific person while everybody else is like blocked off in your head It s like you re only focusing on one person and everybody else is blurred out

There is also hindsight bias where people have an impulse of predicting something is about to happen when they didn t even know it was going to happen In constructing data psychologists mostly relies on empirical method as well Empirical method is where a scientist divides facts and values into two separate categories Values are more like opinions or personal statements towards something while facts are information that contains evidence An example of a value is like saying organic food taste better While an example of a fact is In 1789 George Washington was the first president of the United States A principle to use based on experience is called the rule of thumb The rule of thumb is where you start a statement saying I believe or I think based on your beliefs Psychologist also create laws and theories when they construct their research Their main goal is when researching is to organize their data that can relate to many different situations A law is a general concept that applies to all situations and a theory is like a combined set of concepts that describes most relationships in an area To be able to make a good theory you should make the explanation as simple as possible Not all theories will be accurate though which are falsifiable A hypothesis is an example of falsifiable Your prediction can change over time which can make your hypothesis wrong A hypothesis states the relationship between two values Like for example going to therapy will reduce stress To be more precise about your hypothesis demonstrate the changes therapy and stress will have on each other Little did you know psychological research may cause a negative impact on its participants that s why they have to identify the pros and cons before constructing their research Many psychologists have to deceive their participants to behave in a manner so they can be able to participate in their research projects or they use animals to test it out instead Psychologists deceives them by not informing the participants in what they are getting themselves into As well as participants have the option if they want to participate in their research project and the researchers must protect the privacy of their participants

Meaning they have to keep them anonymous These research projects can be really harmful and potentially violate their participant s moral standards but in the long run its helped improve people s lives Researchers manly just want to identify which research should they continue working on There are three characteristics psychologist uses to continue their approach on their research The research characteristics are descriptive correlational and experimental They are used to collect and analyze data Descriptive is describing the current state of a matter correlational is evaluating relationships among values and experimental is evaluating how manipulation has an effect on vulnerable values Descriptive research is mainly to photograph individual s behavior or current thoughts like in a survey or case study Experimental research is to provide a reliable conclusion using some sort of direction from an independent value and dependent value

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