Essay Example on Corticosteroid produced synthetically as Medicines









Age body site size of affected area Bandaging sex pregnancy lactation are factors which influenced on the potency of Corticosteroid that will be given Infants are more susceptible to side effects However concern about the safety of topical corticosteroids in children should not result in the child being undertreated Babies and children with mild to moderate eczema are usually prescribed mild topical steroids 

A mild corticosteroid such as hydrocortisone 0 5 or 1 is useful for treating nappy rash and hydrocortisone1 for atopic eczema in childhood If the condition is severe eczema and there is no response to a mild steroid moderate to potent topical corticosteroids may be given for short periods and under medical supervision In case if the eczema flares up moderately potent corticosteroid may be replaced by a stronger potency For feet and hands which have thick skin potent preparations can be used but the face and genital areas which have thinner skin mild and moderately potent preparations are preferred In case of applying corticosteroid to the body folds the occlusive effect increases its potency therefore a milder preparation is better to used When a large area of skin is affected it is better to use a weaker strength Bandaging increases the potency therefore a weaker corticosteroid may be chosen TC have to be used with caution in children and elderly due to larger surface area to body weight ratio and poor skin barrier function in the former and skin fragility in the latter respectively

Corticosteroid produced synthetically as medicines by derivation of the natural corticosteroid hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex Corticosteroids have a C21 structure and are characterized by 3 cyclohexane rings and 1 cyclopentane ring There are two main groups of corticosteroids Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids that both are hormones or synthetic mimics of hormones produced by adrenal cortex Hydrocortisone is a corticosteroid which developed by reduction of carbonyl group on C11 and is the most important human glucocorticoid To have the least adverse drug reactions and better topical activity Lots of structural modifications have been made For instance Prednisolone formed by the insertion of double bond C1 2 to hydrocortisone has much higher anti-inflammatory activity as compared to hydrocortisone 

The most important skin function is permeability barrier function Overcoming this barrier function will be the purpose of skin drug delivery Topical corticosteroids are directly applied to the skin to reduce irritation and inflammation because of their anti-inflammatory immunosuppressant vasoconstrictive and anti-proliferative actions Vasoconstrictive might be due to blocking of action of vasodilators like histamine Topical corticosteroids stop skin cells from producing inflammation-causing chemicals that are normally released when the skin reacts to allergens or irritation These inflammation-causing chemicals include prostaglandins and various other inflammatory substances

They wide blood vessels and cause other inflammatory substances to arrive and make the affected area of skin swollen red and itchy Corticosteroids reduce inflammation and irritation by preventing those inflammatory chemicals from being released in the skin Topical corticosteroids come in different vehicles such as creams ointments lotions foams gel and come in different potencies 

Creams are light and cool and may be used to treat moist weepy or wet eczema creams are usually emulsions of the oil in water type or water in oil type Creams tend to be less greasy but need to be applied more often than ointments but they often contain preservatives which can cause irritation stinging and allergic reaction The British National Formulary divides TC into four different potencies known as mild-moderate potent and very potent The character of the vehicle system defines the potency of topical preparations and its selection is crucial for product performance Some important rules should be considered when choosing a vehicle the solubility release rate and stability of the therapeutic agent in the vehicle the ability of the vehicle to hydrate the SC the physical and chemical interactions of the vehicle with the skin and active molecule and also the phase localization and extent of disease 

Appropriate Safe and Effective use of corticosteroid creams Conditions widely treated with topical corticosteroids include eczema Seborrhoeic dermatitis psoriasis nappy rash lichen planus and skin irritation caused by insect bites or stings Corticosteroids are not to cure these conditions but can help relieve the symptoms and suppress signs of the disorder

Female patients are more prone to steroid adverse effects due to their tendency to use TC indiscriminately They are categorized as pregnancy category C and thus recommended to be used only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus 

During lactation they are to be used with caution The focus is to develop drugs with high efficacy locally and lower risk rate for adverse drug reactions Local side effects affecting the skin are more likely than systemic side effects After application of a corticosteroid just small amounts of the drug reach the dermis and the systemic circulation The drugs absorption is much more in the scrotum axilla eyelid face and scalp than the forearm knee-elbow palm and sole The use of topical corticosteroids should be avoided on ulcerated or atrophied skin or if there is infectious dermatosis The most common side effect of topical corticosteroids is a burning or stinging sensation when the medication is applied However this usually improves as your skin gets used to the treatment Local adverse drug reactions could be thinning of the skin worsening of a pre-existing skin infection stretch marks which are likely to be permanent Easy bruising Steroid acne Rosacea and Allergic contact dermatitis

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