Essay Example on Dairiday Industry









Introduction Dairiday industry was established in 1997 It is committed to the highest standards of food safety and quality control and recently been ISO 22000 certified Dairiday was the first company to introduce fresh milk in Lebanon revolutionizing in the process the local dairy industry Dairiday produces a wide range of dairy products such as fresh whole low fat and so light milk full fat and so light Laban Labneh and Ayran as well as cheeses like Halloum also with mint with black cumin for grill and so light Akkawi Akkawi so light Double crème and white cheese

The objective of this visit was to introduce us to production process and how to control quality of milk and milk products in reality as we have seen it earlier theoretically In this report we will discuss the processing of milk and milk products starting from raw milk receiving to end product I Milk Milk is considered an important nutrition for humans to ensure good growth Milk is mainly constituted water fat proteins lactose milk sugar and minerals salts It also contains trace amounts of other substances such as pigments enzymes vitamins phospholipids sub stances with fatlike properties and gases However according to the National Dairy Council milk is filled with nine essential nutrients that benefit our health Calcium Protein Potassium Phosphorus Vitamin D Vitamin B12 Vitamin A Riboflavin B2 and Niacin Besides total solids the term solids non fat SNF is used in discussing the composition of milk The mean SNF content is mainly 13 0 3 9 9 1 The pH of normal milk generally lies between 6 5 and 6 7 with 6 6 as the most common value This value applies at temperature of measurement near 25 C Although in many parts of the world a variety of animals are used as sources for milk however almost all commercially available milk comes from cows Today milk appears in grocery stores in a wide variety of forms designed to appeal to the tastes and needs of individual consumers Milk is highly perishable product that should be cooled to 4 C as soon as possible after collection Extreme temperature pH and bacteria decrease the quality of milk The most common undesirable substances found in milk are o Additional water o Detergents o Hormones and antibiotic o Pesticides o Toxic bacteria II Quality control The received raw milk is subjected to lab tests before processing to make sure that it is safe and complying to standards of high quality milk Antibiotic residue test If a cow was subjected to antibiotics they will be secreted with the milk Milk contaminated with antibiotics is undesirable and should be eliminated because of its harmful effects on human and pregnant women Besides the antibiotic would affect the fermentation of yogurt where it would interact with the good bacteria and stop the fermentation

To test the presence of antibiotic we use BETA Star detector Microbiological stability It is important to test the bacteria present in milk because this would affect the quality of milk The lab tests shall indicate total count coliforms presence of yeasts molds salmonella staphylococcus and listeria However dairiday factory have farms that take care of cows maintaining by that the quality of milk so mainly these tests are done if they took milk from other farms for certain reasons to make sure that milk is safe and of high quality Acidity test Milk s acidity should be between 6 65 and 6 7 which is slightly acidic Physical test Cow s food in the farms should be tested to know if it s healthy If grass and fodder are in good quality and under care so the milk produced would be probably in high quality Chemical test Oxidation color changes flavor degradation should be tested before processing III Milk processing Milk is pasteurized to eliminate all pathogenic microorganisms however not eliminating spores Sterilization which is a treatment that is more vigorous than pasteurization eliminates all pathogenic microorganisms along with spores This process is based on 5 steps Milk enters at 4 C from the refrigerated tank and exits at 45 C The heated milk then passes into a centrifugal separator to remove fat from milk and it is provided with a sensor that reads the fat content in it of different percentages depending on the final product to be produced standardizing Then milk is heated to 75 C in the pasteurizer which is a temperature high enough to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms Hot milk goes through a degasser vacuum to remove bad odors Homogenizer milk is subjected to high pressure P 170 bar to decrease particle size and by that minimizing separation of milk this will help in increasing product shelf life and giving it a better appeal Final heating step Tf is fixed depending on the product to be manufactured If the arriving milk s temperature Tf it doesn t need further heating But if temperature Tf then it is re circulated to the first heating step Pasteurization is done at 90 C for 5 minutes in holding tubes Milk quantity is determined at the end of the tube Note If the milk product intended to be skimmed same procedures are done but the milk should pass through separator before homogenization so that fat particles are removed to produce skimmed milk This figure shows a typical process flow in a market milk pasteurization unit The milk enters the unit through the balance tank 1 and is pumped to plate heat exchanger 16 where it is pre heated before it continues to the separator 5 which produces skim milk and cream

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