Essay Example on Diabetes a chronic metabolic disease is one of the major health Burden









Diabetes a chronic metabolic disease is one of the major health burden world wide It is characterized by hyperglycemia insulin resistance or relative insulin insufficiency 1 It may lead to various microvascular and macrovascular complications 85 to 95 of all diabetes in high income countries are of Type 2 Recently it is estimated that 439 million people would have Type 2 diabetes by the year 2030 2 Diabetes has identified as the fourth leading cause of human morbidity by International Diabetes Federation IDF Omega 3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids which can be obtained from plants and animals It is nothing but alpha linolenic eicosapentaenoic EPA docosahexaenoic acid DHA Alpha linolenic acid is obtained from plant source whereas EPA DHA are rich in fish oil Diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids plays an important role in maintining cell membrane structure and also enhancing insulin sensitivity decreasing blood glucose in diabetic rats 3 Thus membranes enriched in unsaturated fatty acids tend to bind more insulin than membranes enriched in saturated fatty acids Results from previous studies suggest that omega 3 fatty acid has hypoglycemic effect in streptozocin induced diabetes in rats It could be involved in the mechanism of reducing insulin resistance 4 Recent evidence states that omega 3 fatty acid from animal source are more effective in improving insulin sensitivity than plant source 

There is a recent surge in research on effects of functional foods like omega 3 fatty acids in the management of Type 2 DM 5 Metformin is the standard first line oral hypoglycemic drug in Type 2 DM Metformin decreases hyperglycemia primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver hepatic gluconeogenesis 6 It has been demonstrated that it reduces plasma glucose level by a noninsulin dependent hypoglycemic action The deficient functions of pancreatic beta cells in STZ NAD induce Type 2 diabetes in rats have been documented 7 Rats with STZ Nicotinamide induced diabetes would thus be used in the current study as an animal model of Type 2 like diabetes Due to high cost of medication physicians are now looking to control DM with alternatives Though prior studies have been done with omega three fatty acid alone this study aims to compare the hypoglycemic effect of omega 3 fatty acid and its potentiating effect with Metformin Objectives Primary aim To compare the hypoglycemic effect of omega 3 fatty acids with Metformin in streptozotocin NAD induced Type 2 diabetic rats Secondary aim To assess the Potentiation of hypoglycemic effect of Metformin with omega 3 fatty acids in Streptozotocin NAD induced Type 2 diabetic rats To assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on body weight of rats METHODOLOGY MATERIALS Streptozotocin 60mg kg Nicotinamide 120mg kg Metformin 200 mg kg omega 3 fatty acid 500mg kg day Streptozotocin Nicotinamide will be purchased preserved at 25ºC and used for this study Metformin and Omega 3 fatty acid will be purchased commercially from the market Both metformin and omega 3 fatty acid will be administered orally to the rats as a suspension by a 1ml syringe water will be used as the vehicle Animals 30 Male albino Wistar rats weighing 180 250g will be used in the present study All the rats will be kept at room temperature of 22 25 C in the animal house The internationally accepted ethical guidelines for the care of laboratory animals should be followed Prior to the experiments rats will be fed with standard food for 1 week in order to adapt to the laboratory conditions All the experiments will be conducted after the approval of Institutional Animal Ethical Committee Induction of diabetes mellitus Streptozotocin STZ 60mg kg will be dissolved in 50 mM sodium citrate PH 4 5 solution containing 150 mM NaCl The solution will be administrated by intraperitoneal route immediately after preparing the solution and 15 min after i p administration of Nicotinamide 120mg kg 8

Animals will be fed with 5 dextrose in order to prevent hypoglycaemic shock for 18hrs Fasting blood glucose will be estimated after 72hrs and on day 7 to confirm the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus The rats which has a fasting blood glucose value of more than 200mg dl 9 will be considered diabetic and used in the study Experimental design 30 male Wistar rats were used in this study with 6 rats in each of the following groups Group 1 normal control receive only the vehicle orally by syringe Group 2 diabetic control receive only the vehicle orally by syringe Group 3 Diabetic rats will receive Omega 3 fatty acid 500mg kg orally by syringe 10 Group 4 Diabetic rats will receive Metformin 200mg kg orally by syringe 10 Group 5 Diabetic rats will receive Omega 3 fatty acid 500mg kg 200mg kg Metformin orally by syringe Following parameters will be assessed Fasting blood glucose Blood sample will be collected from the tail vein of the rat and fasting blood glucose will be assessed by glucometer Baseline blood sugar will be assessed in all the rats before start of the experiment Drug treatment will be given for 28 days Blood sugar will be assessed at 7 14 21 28 days during drug administration Body weight Body weight will be assessed at baseline and 7 14 21 28 days of drug administration Statistical analysis The data will be expressed as mean SD and statistical analysis will be carried out by one way analysis of variance ANOVA Differences will be considered significant if the P value will be 0 05

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