Essay Example on Different Methods and Applications for the Recovery of Protein

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As seen above companies have decided to put special emphasis on the recovery of nutrients from waste streams protein in this case This review provides an in depth understanding of the Different methods and applications for the recovery of protein from waste Membrane technology has been successfully employed for protein recovery from waste streams in the dairy industry for years What is membrane technology According to Winston Ho and sirkar 1992 It is a separation technology that uses semi permeable membrane filters to concentrate or fractionate a feed stream of liquid i e waste stream resulting in two product streams The compounds which pass through the semipermeable membrane with the liquid is known as the permeates and the liquid retained is known as the retenate also known as the rejected liquid S Ganju et al 2017 Membrane separation methods are identified as the most viable methods for protein recovery at this moment in time sparsh Ganju 2017 The most widely used processes to separate components such as whey protein and casein in the dairy industry are Microfiltration Ultrafiltration and Reverse osmosis Ultrafiltration is a process where proteins can be efficiently recovered resulting in a high yield and purity Atra et al 2005 Before Ultrafiltration Pretreatment must take place this involves the removing of suspended fat and casein particles by microfiltration It also helps to reduce the fouling of the ultrafiltration membrane Cancino et al 2006
According to Sparsh Ganju et al 2017 Membrane fouling is caused due to a combination of different phenomena such as concentration polarisation pore blocking or cake formation The transfer of mass through a membrane becomes limited as a result of the formation of deposits on the membrane during the separation of proteins As membrane fouling is a major issue pre treatment must be carried out to limit it from taking place Whey protein Fig 1 Distribution of global whey production and consumption Tsakali et al 2010 S Ganju 2017 Whey protein separation consists of three stages Pre treatment separation and drying s Ganju et al 2017 Pretreatment Microfiltration predominantly used as a pre treatment to avoid problems in the separation and drying process Separation membrane technology is the most common method of recovery of protein with ultrafiltration being the highest contributor in the recovery There sre lots of other separation methods these will also be highlighted later in the paper Drying For commercial use whey protein needs to be in a powder form ie dried in order to reduce its transportation cost accessibility for the consumer and to prolong its shelf life Drying results in a decrease of the alpha helix and random structure and therefore increasing beta sheet structure in recovered proteins Bispasha Das et al 2015 The two main methods of drying is Spray drying and freeze drying
The major challenge of spray drying is that with such a high temperature present in the spray dryer can cause protein denaturation Freeze drying has the advantage of a vacuum operating at lower temperature thus not posing the threat of denaturation of the protein Fig1 Flow chart representing the recovery of whey protein Bispasha Das et al 2016 Although membrane technology is the most widely used protein separation technique there are many more that have been developed in recent years Liquid chromatography Liquid chromatography is one of the most popular occurring method for the recovery and purification of proteins A M Ventura et al 2008 According to Maria Joao Santos et al 2011 this technique is based on hydrophobic interaction between hydrophobic ligands and nonpolar regions on the surface of the biomolecule protein R C F Bonomo et al 2006 HIC can be used as a first step of an integrated process for the full recovery of proteins i e whey Maria Joao Santos et al 2011 Foaming Process Mainly used mussel blanching waste Foam separation can be used for the recovery and enrichment of proteins from processing wastewater obtained from the industrial blanching of green lipped mussels N Y Chan et al 2006

Foaming removes surface active organic substances such as protein from waste liquid streams J D Van Der Toorn 1987 Protein which is known as a surface active substance attaches to the foam so the foam is concentrated with proteins and the the liquid remaining is clarified J D Van Der Toorn 1987 PH is an important factor to control in the foaming process as it affects the recovery of the protein due to the changes of the isoelectric point of the protein molecules 7 9 see mussel blanching The conclusion of this study by N Y Chan et al 2006 stated that foaming experiments showed that the protein enrichment ratio was inversely proportional to the volume of foam generated and the protein recovery percentage Protein recovery ranged from 50 85 Ph 5 2 was the optimum PH value according to the study and a air flow rate of 2 2 L min Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis The head of a white shrimp can degrade tissue proteins through a process called autolysis Cao Zhang Hong Ji 2008 This process is known as an efficient and relatively low cost process for the recovering of protein from shrimp head waste streams


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