Essay Example on Diphtheria is an infection that targets the respiratory Tract








What is Diphtheria Diphtheria is an infection that targets the respiratory tract of a human It mainly affects the nose and throat but has serious impacts on the lungs and heart if not treated It is highly contagious and is spread through the air by someone coughing or sneezing or by contact with the carrier such as their clothing or their skin nhs direct wales nhs uk 2018 Diphtheria is caused by a toxin that is released from a bacterium and not the bacterium itself Trade Names Diphtheria Vaccine s trade names are Pediacel or Infanrix IPV Hib Repevax and Revaxis Gov uk 2018 Diphtheria s type of vaccine Toxoid vaccines use a toxin that is made by the bacteria in Diphtheria s case Corynebacterium ulcerans they create immunity to the parts of bacteria that cause a disease instead of the bacteria itself That means that the immune system targets the toxin and not the bacteria Vaccines gov 2018 Corynebacterium diphtheriae infects the nasopharynx or skin Toxigenic strains secrete a potent exotoxin which may cause diphtheria Murphy J et al 1996 Route of Administration The route of administration of the vaccine is intramuscular The pharmaceutical form of the vaccine is a suspension and has a shelf life of 3 years and must be stored in a refrigerator 2ºC to 8ºC The vaccine is used for active immunisation and contains other active ingredients in the formulation such as tetanus and poliomyelitis Electronic Medicines Compendium 2018 Vaccine Combination

There are 4 combinations DTaP Tdap DT and Td Two of these DTaP and DT are given to children younger than seven years of age and two Tdap and Td are given to older children and adults Vaccines gov 2018 How is the Toxoid inactivated The toxin that cause Diphtheria is separated from bacteria and is added with formaldehyde which counteracts the poison but does not destroy the toxins ability to stimulate the production of antibodies causes the toxin to become a toxoid Lee H and Choi J 2018 Therefore this now made vaccine with the inactive toxin is safe to use for anyone even babies Diphtheria Toxin Structure Diphtheria Toxin belongs to the AB toxin groups because of its structure It contains an A fragment and a B fragment The B fragment delivers the A fragment so that cell death can occur The toxin is also made up of three folding domains in the A fragment consists of the catalytic domain C while the B fragment consists of two folding domains the receptor domain R and the translocation domain T Metz B 2005 How the Vaccine affects the immune system The vaccine helps to immunise a patient as it allows the immune system in the body to recognise the inactivated toxin and allows it to build a defence against it By administering the vaccine intramuscular it allows the inactivated toxin to enter the bloodstream straight away meaning that the inactivated toxoid has completely bypassed the normal line of immune system defence through mouth nose or skin All Diphtheria vaccine contain aluminium as an adjuvant Adjuvant are neurotoxins that trigger the required immune response This adjuvant alarms the immune system causing it to react to everything in the vaccine therefore the inactivated toxoid which then allows the body to develop the required antibodies against toxoid Vaccine Decision info 2018

Organs That are affected by the Vaccine Diphtheria infects the throat nose and larynx the toxin can also affect the heart kidneys liver lungs nerves and muscles therefore the vaccine will need to affect the lymphatic system to allow the immune system to work and also the organs that are affected by the toxin so therefore no symptoms can occur Uptake of Diphtheria Vaccine UK In the UK children receive three primary doses of Diphtheria for full immunisation to occur The WHO target of 95 means that if 95 of the population is vaccinated that means that the whole nation will be immune to the Toxin 93 4 of children in the UK were vaccinated which was a slight drop from 2015 16 of 93 6 In the year 2012 13 94 7 of children at 12 months had their primary treatment of the 5 in 1 vaccine Screening Immunisations Team NHS Digital 2017 The effectiveness of Vaccine The Diphtheria vaccine has been very effective in recent years in many countries In the UK nearly 95 of babies at 12 months have the vaccine which has made Diphtheria very rare in the UK However recently the number of cases of Diphtheria in the Russian Federation rose during 1991 1992 with 319 respiratory diphtheria cases in children between the ages of 6 years to 14 years Control subjects at that time received more doses of the vaccine The results that were taken during that time shows that the vaccine was very effective even if one dose was taken Bisgard K et al 2018

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