Due to the Arab Spring waves there was a mass campaign for homicide launched by Col Muammar Qaddafi in Libya in 2011 This campaign was executed widespread Libya form house to house and individual to individual According to Boadong et al 2014 the death toll for this campaign in Libya was 50 000 people in 2011 The Obama Government claimed that without the international intervention the death toll can be pulled to the number of 100 000 people The interventions proposed can be direct method such as military actions or embargoes on trade or basic necessities The threat of campaign led to the introduction of UNSC Resolution 1973 which justifies the humanitarian intervention in Libya and other similar situation According to UNSC Resolution 1973 humanitarian intervention was necessary to reduce the escalating situation of violence in Libya The humanitarian intervention attracts interests of many scholars and researchers due to its importance to the global peace Gareth Mohamed 2002 argue that the original perceptions of humanitarian interventions should be changed Instead of the right to intervene humanitarian intervention should shift to the responsibility to protect R2P The birth of R2P concept rooted from the necessity of civil protection from humanitarian crimes including war crimes and crimes against humanity
The formal introduction of this concept was firstly launched in the 2009 UN Resolution Hehir 2012 By the introduction of R2P the power is delegated to the international community by the UN Security Council to intervene in a state with the purpose of human protection Thus the concept of R2P is regarded as the first internationally recognized concept with the legitimation for international intervention for humanitarian purposes Additionally the legitimation of R2P has reduced continuous and serious debates of academics and politicians about the national sovereignty for intervention purposes Currently R2P intervention is firstly and only implemented in Libya The justification for R2P in Libya is attributed to the elimination of homicide threats by Gaddafi s campaign in an Eastern city of Libya Benghazi The advocates for the R2P interventions struck a deep chord with the US Boadong et al 2014 stated that the R2P interventions by NATO can be considered as the sample case for the proper implementation of R2P corresponding its pure humanitarian purposes This paper briefly reviews the introduction of R2P and the shift from the right to intervene to the responsibility For the insights of R2P the paper investigates the case of R2P in Libya to evaluate the principle of humanitarian intervention as applied to Libya by the US The Libya context for intervention and the effects of R2P on Libya are presented and analyzed to give the justification of R2P in Libya by the US 1 The Responsibility to Protect R2P
The birth of a concept The decade 1990 2000 witnessed the escalation of violence in many areas in the world the useless efforts by the United Nations UN destroyed the expectations about effective humanitarian protection and global peace Kofi Annan the prompted UN General Secretary released two reports in 2000 and 2001 with the guidelines for humanitarian interventions The Brahimi Report in 2000 indicated the problems of humanitarian protection actions such as inefficient and insufficient coordination between parties and ineffective civil protection measures Hehir 2012 The report of the Independent Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty in 2001 also criticized the traditional neutral position of the UN in issues related to humanitarian intervention In 2001 the Independent Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty ICISS released a report about an appropriate humanitarian intervention doctrine The Responsibility to Protect report by ICISS mentioned the paradigm shift from the right to the responsibility The report examined the fundamentals for humanitarian intervention including just cause exhaustion of peaceful means and better consequences rather than inaction Hehir 2012 The right authority was also tackled in this ICISS report for its controversy The UN only legitimized the only form of intervention collective intervention Therefore in all cases of humanitarian intervention the UN Security Council gave the priority to intervention by a collective of states of regional institutions and organizations Boadong et al 2014 Despite the support of humanitarian intervention arguments in reports by the UN Security Council the two humanitarian interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq led by the US after 9 11 did not meet the requirements attributed by the UN for humanitarian intervention Furthermore these two interventions questioned the reliability of humanitarian intervention which stated that the situations of Afghans and Iraqis were not considered as emergencies the first fundamentals for implementation of humanitarian intervention determined by the UN despite the persecution by the Taliban and Saddam for decades Only after the terrorism hit to the US Afghans and Iraqis were listed as a humanitarian emergency Therefore the emerging of humanitarian intervention was considered due to the consequences of Arab Spring waves in Libya and Syria Siskind 2011 Therefore the humanitarian intervention in Libya marked the birth of R2P
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