Essay Example on Earthquakes are Caused due to Sudden Movement








INTRODUCTION Every years thousands or more than that earthquakes are felt by human being worldwide out of which some range from very small intensity felt only by few persons to great intensities that destroy the whole cities 1 Earthquakes has always been the major potential source of damage and casualties for humankind when compared with other natural hazards such as Tsunami Cyclone Floods and Landslide Although Places varies but the pattern with which earthquakes will strikes is remain same since earthquake strikes without giving any sort of warnings leaving the whole cities in wreckage and killing thousands of people 2 The loss of human lives economical losses depends upon the intensity with which grounds shakes location and depth of earthquakes and the amount with which buildings get settled 1 Peoples are killed not due to earthquakes but the buildings or the structure made by them does so Till date the number of earthquakes that has occurred yet and damages caused by it weather loss of human lives or financial losses are more worse in areas which are densely populated Where large number of buildings has been constructed on a seismically active zone and also due presence of older buildings that has not been properly refurbished 4

 Earthquakes that occurs in isolated areas which are far away from dense populations have experienced rarely any damage so it is not necessary that earthquakes that is of strong magnitude will cause large destructions even a small magnitude of earthquakes can create a similar scenario when it strikes a densely populated area 2 Earthquakes are usually caused by number of factors such as due to movement of magma within the volcanoes or due to expulsion in the earth crusts but the earthquakes which is initiated due to these factors are of very small intensity and causes very less damage whereas major earthquakes are caused due to sudden movement of tectonic plates over the fault plane deep inside the earth's mantle because of which ground motion is experienced on the earth surface since transmission of energy waves from the bedrock takes place 3 because of this ground motion earthquake forces are generated as structures dynamically respond to induced ground motion 5 This action make earthquake forces completely different from other imposed loads that act on any structures Thus due the inelastic characteristics of the structures the earthquake forces can be influenced directly which give designer an opportunity to influence the earthquake forces to large extent by properly distributing lateral forces by maintaining the regularity of building in plan and elevation by limiting the developments of unwanted response mode and by selecting proper response mode 5 Main Purpose of Design Structure Design has always been one of the most interesting as well creative segments in earthquake engineering from many decades The main purpose of structure design is to create a structure which is technically as well as economically sound and it has the ability to resist and transmit the different forces acting on it and the deformation induced by these forces should be within limits 6

Therefore major purpose of structure design is to construct optimal structure According to many authors optimisation not only means to consider the initial cost of buildings but it should focus on the benefits that has to come from structure in its service period maintenance cost damage cost and there is always been a probabilities that during service period structure will suffer damage and failure 7 Gallagher pointed that even today in the field of modern analysis technology optimum design technology has not been properly accepted in practical design and it is difficult to determine the causes responsible for slow acceptance of design technologies in practical design fields 8 In 1980 Esteva discussed the objectives and nature of earthquake resistant design as Engineering Design which is rooted in our society is need to be optimize It comprises of taking in consideration the alternate line of action analysing its consequences and making a foremost choice In earthquake engineering all alternate line of action comprises the adoption of both a seismic design criterion and a structural system whereas analysing its consequences involve estimating the structural response and cost of damage The foremost choice is based on comparing initial repair and maintenance cost Modern Seismic design has its origin in late 1920 s at that time seismic design mainly comprises of considering 10 to 15 of building weight as lateral forces on the buildings and it is applied uniformly on the buildings and the analysis are done In 1960 s an instrument was developed which is capable of recording the actual ground motion generated due to earthquake named as Accelerograph they were installed within buildings at different levels due to which it become easier to understand the actual dynamic response of building when it is subjected to earthquakes After knowing the actual ground motion as an input a new technology was developed called inelastic integrated history analysis it

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