Essay Example on Endosulfan is highly lipophilic persistent organic insecticide








Endosulfan is highly lipophilic persistent organic insecticide it can lead to bioaccumulation and bio magnifications resulting in to harmful effect on target and non target organisms It is one of the more toxic pesticides responsible for many fatal pesticide poisoning incidents around the world Several studies summarising endosulfan can cause biological effects that include endocrine disruption neurotoxicity hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity along with increased oxidative stress and cell death Bajpayee et al 2006 Silva et al 2009 Sohn et al 2004 Endosulfan also a xenoestrogen it can imitate or enhances the effect of oestrogens Varayoud 2002 and it causing reproductive and developmental damage in both animals and humans Endosulfan shows a wide range of acute sub chronic and chronic toxicity in insect and mammals including human its acute poisoning results in a 30 or higher death rate Moon 2009 In the recent years the US Environmental protection Agency and the EU classified endosulfan as highly hazardous while the world health organisation classifies it as Class II moderately hazardous

Acute exposure to high levels of endosulfan is known to cause poisoning and even death in humans Usha and Harikrishnan 2005 Adverse and severe health effects on exposure to endosulfan have been reported in communities in several countries including India South East Asia Southern pacific and Sub Saharan Africa UNEP GEF 2002 UNEP GEF 2002a A recent investigation on the long term use of endosulfan in a cashew plantation district in India reported severe health problems and residual contamination in the area Vankar et al 2001 It is a GABA gated chloride channel antagonist inhibitors of Na K and Ca2 Mg2 ATPase these enzymes are essential for transport of ion across the membrane The residual amounts of organochlorines are cause inhibition of acetyl cholinterase activity in the target tissues and effect Na K ATPase Ca2 Mg2 ATPase activity of cells Naqvi and Vaishnavi 1993 Toxicity assay was performed to study the inhibition of growth and development and also determine sub lethal concentrations of endosulfan alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan Inhibition of development was studied by founding percentage of hatchability pupation rate and emergence of the model organisms

Pre mature aging of organisms has been implicated by the alteration in the expression of regulation of a no of genes con current with factor like xenobiotic exposure dietary habits etc Heat shock proteins hsp are reported to function as chaperons by orchestrating correct folding and unfolding of proteins Hsp can counter act proteo toxicity and favour stress resistance to the organisms which may be casually linked to an increase in life span but it undergo functional decline Tower 2009 2011 Endosulfans elicit oxidative stress by generation of free radicals and induce tissue lipid peroxidation in mammals and other organisms Comele koylu et al 2000 An organism experiences xenobiotic stress following to endosulfan exposure Stress production is one of the primary protective responses of an organism by induction of specific set of stress genes called as heat shock genes whose products are called stress proteins heat shock proteins During pesticide intoxication free radicals can be changes in protein components of cells on the protein profile Synthesis and degradation of proteins are sensitive over a wide range of conditions and show different physical and chemical modulators

The biological alterations observed in an animal under chemical stress can be correlated with the structural and functional changes of cellular proteins Proteins hold the unique position in the modulators of cells because of the proteinaceuos nature of all the enzymes which mediate at various metabolic pathways Lehninger 2008 Harper 2006 Stress protein has been proposed as sensitive indicator of lethal exposure to contaminants in the environment When the cells are challenged with certain environmental stimulus such as temperature and toxic chemiacals cause the induction of stress protein genes the product of which function in new protein folding and in long effect it cause phenotypic change Craig et al 1989 Cruz Rodrique 2002 several stress protein have been shown to be induced by wide variety of stressors like hyperthermia heavy metal etc stress proteins are placed in to groups of families based on their relative in number and DNA sequence like high molecular weight stress protein stress protein 70 chaperones 60 stress protein 42 and low molecular weight stress proteins This chapter aims to determine median effective concentration EC50 of endosulfan alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan to determine how much chemicals are needed to kill half of a group of test organisms in a given time And also evaluate the dose dependent stress inducing potential of endosulfan and its isomers on the life cycle of exposed drosophila by examining the emergence pattern hatchability and pupation Along with this the study of protein profile changes with differentially expressed proteins in D melanogaster treated with different doses of endosulfan alpha and beta endosulfan

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