1 Energy related pollutants in Hanoi Problems 1 1 Pollution in Hanoi Vietnam is facing an increasing number of environmental pollution challenges including air water pollution and solid waste etc Especially in Hanoi rapid urbanization combined with growing demand for energy resources and exponential growth in vehicular are contributing to deteriorating air quality The elements of pollution are called pollutants The National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAAQS of United State are developed for 6 common air pollutants also called criteria pollutants 1 2 Energy related pollutants and problems The major sources of air pollutants include the combustion of fuels for electricity generation transportations industries space heating and cooking This could understand as a way of using energy In a report of Air Quality Management in Hanoi vehicular fleet activity is a major source of emissions causing air pollution from the combustion of fuels A fair amount of criteria pollutants emissions come from coal and oil combustion in the industries Other emissions come from using the coal for heating and cooking is known as the burning of biomass such as straw rice husk Air pollution is one of the main causes of Green House Gas emission and has put a serious impact on human health The study of Global Burden of Disease in 2010 has ranked outdoor air pollution among the top 10 risks worldwide 2 Benefit and Cost Analysis for Air Pollution Due to the main goal of improve in human health welfare and ecological resources as well as to reduce the impact of the air pollution on Hanoi economy the government of our city needs a strict enforcement of environmental regulations for this problem
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2 1 Definition of Benefit and Cost Analysis Benefit and Cost Analysis BCA is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a decision policy or general project to determine options that have the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings The objective of a Benefit Cost analysis is to convert the effects of an investment into monetary terms and to account the benefits generally increase while the cost is incurred over a period 2 2 The Benefit and Cost Analysis in the Clean Air Act in US Clean Air Act CAA is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act study is seen as the gold standard of benefit cost studies conducted by the government in America and other countries With the lack of the BCA study in air pollution in Vietnam the CAA is chosen as an example to have a better understanding of the cost benefit analysis as practiced by the policy makers Costs estimating There are 2 major types of the cost to estimate for this BCA Social costs Measure the economic welfare loss to society Engineering costs capital operating and maintenance O M administration costs Benefits analysis Most benefits cannot be measured in terms of quantity health benefits climate benefits visibility benefits ecosystem benefits
To evaluate the monetized benefits economic value need to assigned as the expenses the Willingness To Pay or the money savings by reducing the pollution Comparison of Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990 2020 the Second Prospective Study Table 7 5 below shows the results of our more detailed comparison of estimated benefits and estimated cost The top half of the table show both annual and present value estimates The direct costs and the monetized benefits are estimated as the analysis presented above The bottom half of the table presents two methods to compare the benefits to the costs Net benefits reflect the difference between total monetized benefits and total costs The calculation for benefit cost ratios is simply the total discounted benefits divided by the total discounted costs The results of this analysis summarized in the table provide that the benefits of the CAA estimate exceed its costs by a huge margin making the CAA a very good investment for the nation BCA for CAA has been used for the past several decades in determining the success and efficiency of government regulations US air quality regulations have been very effective in reducing air pollution under the CAA with high benefits at lower costs than expected Vietnamese government should make more efforts to bring the problem under control by the use of benefit cost analysis as a planning tool to establish priorities for its regulatory and legislative agenda with respect to air pollution issues This economic analysis will make a long term forward looking perspective on air pollution control for the capital Hanoi 3 Conclusion As reported by the Environmental Program UN Hanoi is the head of pollution level in Asian especially for air pollution Therefore the use of urgent solutions to reduce pollution in Vietnam is very necessary Policy makers can develop BCA in such a way to have the maximum impact on the design and implementation of future air pollution control strategies In addition to above solutions Vietnamese people also need to raise their awareness about the consequences of environmental pollution to reduce the air pollution and improve the quality of life
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