Essay Example on Epigenetic therapy of cancer Epigenetic therapy which is a Cure Option








Epigenetic therapy of cancer Epigenetic therapy which is a cure option has been emerged thanks to the reversible nature of the extensive epigenetic alterations The main goal of the epigenetic cure is to revert the causal epigenetic abnormalities that exist in cancer This leads to a normal epigenome s restoration Histone modifications and DNA methylation abnormalities which exist in cancer have been cured efficiently by variety of epigenetic drugs which have been discovered recently The first epigenetic drugs which are offered to use in cancer therapeutics are DNA methylation inhibitorsInhibition of DNA methylation by cytotoxic agents 5 aza CR and 5 aza CdR was a significant discovery because DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic alteration which trigger gene expression and cause differentiation in cultured cells This knowledge lead to cognizance of the use of these drugs in cancer therapy In quickly growing cancer cells these nucleoside analogs get included in the DNA and suppress DNA methylation by ambushing DNA methyltransferases on the DNA and in the end it leads to their demolition inside of the cell In cancer unnaturally repressed tumor suppressor genes are reactivated so growth inhibition is observed in cancer by reduction of DNA methylation via these kind of drugs Nowadays for some cancer types such as acute and chronic myeloid leukemia 5 aza CR and 5 aza CdR which have been FDA approved are used in the treatment Zebularine which can be orally taken is another developed DNA methylation inhibitors

On the other hand concerns about their potential toxic effect on normal cells increased because of the capability of these drugs to get involved into DNA However due to fact that these drugs has impact on only dividing cells they can affect both tumor and normal cells That s why the main target should be quickly dividing tumor cells and adverse effect on normal cells should be kept in minimal level Recent studies has proved that there is minimal adverse effects of long time cure with DNA methylation inhibitors In addition to cure type which gets involved to DNA an alternative treatment way is usage of non nucleoside compounds which can efficiently stop DNA methylation without any insertion into DNA For instance improvement of many tiny inhibitors like RG108 SGI 1027 and MG98 is an example of non nucleoside compound treatment Targeting their regulatory messenger RNA sequences or blockage cofactor binding sites of DNMTs are two separate way of being successful in inhibition of these molecules despite the fact that these molecules have weak ability to inhibit Therefore they should be developed in order to comprehensive inhibition Loss of histone acetylation is also related with abnormal gene silencing The cure with HDAC inhibitors can reinstating normal histone acetylation patterns This is because these inhibitors have antitumorigenic effects which contain apoptosis growth arrest and the induction of differentiation HDAC inhibitors has antiproliferative effects and this capability is adjusted by themselves Thus they can activate repressed tumor suppressor genes again For example one of the member of HDAC inhibitors is SAHA which is used in clinic for cure of T cell lymphoma Phenyl butyrate and depsipeptide which are some of variety of other HDAC inhibitors are still under clinical investigation

The discovery of efficient mixed cancer cure strategies containing usage of both HDAC inhibitors and DNA methylation is a result of mutual effect between diversified constituents of the epigenetic machinery Compare to individual cure approaches such combined cure strategies are more efficient For instance when only trichostatin A and 5 aza CdR were merged the derepression of certain tumor suppressor genes was observed When leukemic cells were treated with 5 aza CdR virtually the result was increasing in the antitumorigenic effects of depsipeptide Another example is that treating lung tumor formation in mice with 5 Aza CdR phenyl butyrate together and the result of the experiment was greater reduction in tumor In addition to DNA methylation and HDAC inhibitors HMT inhibitors another recent exploration In cancer polycomb repressive complex 2 proteins are upregulated However one of HMT inhibitor called DZNep play a key role for successful triggering of the apoptosis DZNep targets especially polycomb repressive complex 2 Following studies about DZNep strengthen the potential of HMT inhibitors and the necessity for future improvement of special histone methylation inhibitors Lastly epigenetic therapy targets miRNAs Recent works proved that reactivation of miR 127 subsequent cure with 4 phenylbutyric acid and 5 Aza CdR leads down regulation of the BCL6 oncogene thus supporting for the potential miRNA based cure strategy Besides imitating tumor suppressor miRNAs by synthetic miRNAs which can be used to suppress specific oncogenes in tumor To adjust abnormal epigenetic machinery in cancer usage of miRNAs such as miR 101 which targets EZH2 may help in reforming of the normal epigenome Yet main hardship in the efficient usage of cure strategy is the missing of effective delivery way In future prime significance is improvement of effective intermediate molecules for delivery of synthetic miRNAs to tumor cells

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