Essay Example on Essay Question B Disaster governance strives to help Communities

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Essay Question B Disaster governance strives to help communities and countries respond in a cohesive manner However research suggests that disaster governance regimes lean towards disorganization Disaster risks reduction efforts such as structural and non structural mitigation however research suggests such measures difficult to implement Resilient communities embrace mitigation defined as a set of strategies to reduce future risks The goal of mitigation is to increase public safety covering individual homes to entire communities Two kinds of mitigation are typically pursued structural and non structural Structural mitigation centers on the built environment Structural mitigation can prevent a hazard from becoming a disaster Dams levees and floodwalls are examples of structural mitigation that a community can implement to protect a large area from becoming flooded Another structural mitigation option is retrofitting bringing an older building up to the current codes About 1 200 tornadoes occur annually in the United States 



The main cause of injuries in a tornado comes from projectiles picked up and thrown at tremendous velocity Safe rooms that are built to specific standards can protect people from very strong storms including tornadoes and hurricanes In order for structural mitigation to be effective non structural mitigation must also be implemented Nonstructural mitigation includes disaster reduction efforts that are not tangible or built They include intangibles like decisions over land use or written building codes Land use planning is considered a best practice to determine what should happen in concert with the local environment and area hazards Land use planning relies heavily on making informed choices about both location and design by involving stakeholders in those decisions Planning for area growth or site use requires a process in which those involved identify areas of potential growth and determine what they deem best for the area Building codes are a set of rules that specify the standards for construction The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures

Code enforcement is usually the work of the city planning offices and code inspectors Structural and nonstructural mitigation have both advantages and disadvantages Mitigation reduces the severity seriousness or painfulness of a disaster Physical psychological and economic impacts are lessened Mitigation promotes resilience of the community Disaster Risk reduction measures such as structural and nonstructural mitigation come at a cost The financial cost is two fold The initial cost to implement mitigation practices often causes individuals and communities to make less expensive choices Then the cost on the entire community when a disaster strikes and little to no mitigation steps were taken and there is a prolonged and expensive recovery In her article Disaster Governance Social Political and Economic Dimensions Kathleen Tierney discusses the impact of programs designed to reduce the impact of disasters The National Research Council has conducted research on mitigation implementation Tierney and the National Research Council both provide extensive research and discussion on the positive effect of disaster risk reduction through pre event mitigation Each is quick to point out how countries across the world are lacking in implementing mitigation measures 



The implementation of mitigation measures is costly and requires cooperation between all stakeholders For mitigation measures to be effective building codes need to be designed for protection against the likely hazards that will face the area National Research Council 2006 Companies and individuals should work with local inspectors to insure structures and homes are built up to code and if possible even exceed basic code requirements Communities need to take serious thought into land use and the effect that infrastructure has on flood patterns Tierney and the National Research Council both emphasize how low income and developing countries are at a disadvantage when it comes to pre event mitigation measures Low income and developing countries lack the financial capital and resources to adequately implement a comprehensive disaster mitigation measures Tierney N D Even in the United States low income areas are also at a disadvantage After Hurricane Katrina the residents of the Lower 9th Ward of New Orleans faced the harsh reality of having to rebuild The residents did not have a plethora of resources and capitol before the hurricane let alone after a major disaster Years later homes sat abandoned because the cost to rebuild and bring the homes up to current codes was unfeasible The cost to rebuild the New Orleans area levee system reached the 14 billion mark seven years after the storm Disaster risk reduction efforts are important in mitigating the effects of disasters Tierney as well as the National Research Council provides immense discussion and research on the effect income and access to resources has on mitigation efforts Regardless of a county s prowess the country is vulnerable to disasters however any and all mitigative steps can make a difference in the resiliency of the country Resources Tierney K n d Disaster Governance Social Political and Economic Dimensions Retrieved January 12 2018 from http www annualreviews org journal environ National Research Council Facing hazards and disasters understanding human dimensions National Academies Press 2006


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