Essay Example on Geopolitically and geo economically the south china Sea









Due to its strategic location both geopolitically and geo economically the south china sea is currently being seized by several countries including China Philippines Vietnam Malaysia Brunei Darussalam and Taiwan These countries are insisting to maintain the territorial sea of south China to be part of their territory Various efforts have been done to seize the territory of South China Sea often use hard power military power and soft power diplomacy through the bilateral level regional level and international level Not only that the conflicts in the South China Sea probably become exacerbated as a presence of hegemonic interests of the two superpowers the United States and China This paper was written to explain this prolonged conflict and also try to provide solutions to the collective security arrangements of each claimant countries with the roles of Association of the Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN and International Arbitrations Body Indonesia Brunei Darussalam China Malaysia the Philippines Taiwan and Vietnam all assert conflicting rights to control of passage in the South China Sea to the small reefs or to the marine resources The International Hydrographic Organization in its Limits of Oceans and Seas 3rd edition published in 1953 involving 

7 countries for claiming the South China Sea but in a revised edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas 4th edition published in 1986 the International Hydrographic Organization IHO officially recognized the Natuna Sea In the publication it stated that the southern limit of South China Sea is revised from the Bangka Belitung Islands to the Natuna Islands to the Indonesian territory After then the South China Sea formally contested by six claimant countries Brunei Darussalam China Malaysia the Philippines Taiwan and Vietnam If we look in details the disputes mostly to fight over the rich natural resources and its advantages geo economics but also to control the most busies and important waters areas on earth from the geopolitical perspective As mentioned before there are six claimant countries that claim of the South China Sea Each claimant country made their justification and reason to put their claim to become the winner of this geopolitics and geo economics circumstances China claimed that they have long standing history in the South China Sea territory since the ancient time They also claimed the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands in the South China Sea territory In contemporary time the Chinese Government has tried to build the artificial island in the South China Sea disputes areas as well as to build new high tech military based Chinese Government particularly claimed their territory based on nine dot line rather than a continuous border Similar with China Taiwan claims exactly the same that China claims Taiwan claims the same maritime features that mainland China claims in the South China Sea 

In fact the Republic of China was issued the nine dot line territorial based in December 1947 before the Nationalist government retreated to Formosa Island now Taiwan in 1949 Despite its broad claims Taiwan actually occupies only two islands in the South China Sea Itu Aba and Pratas Island which it calls Taiping Island They are two of the biggest naturally formed features in the region Pratas Island spans 174 hectares and Itu Aba 46 and both islands contain extensive military and civilian facilities The Philippines claims the South China Sea territorial based on UNCLOS and historical occupation and stationed troops on most of its Spratly claims since 1970s China and the Philippines long played cat and mouse in the area with the China s attempting to slowly build up markers buoys and wall structures on reefs and the Philippine side tearing them down Following the Johnson South Reef skirmish between mainland China and Vietnam in 1988 which resulted in the deaths of 64 Vietnamese soldiers the Philippines have pursued legal and diplomatic channels to protect its claims from Beijing It explains by vuving that the Philippines moved in to the occupied seven features in the Spratlys between 1970 and 1978 with troops stationed on five islands Flat Island West York Island Nanshan Island Thitu Island and Loaita Island Beginning in the 80s and through to 1999 the Philippines established further outposts on Commodore Reef and Second Thomas Shoal

Since after lost skirmish with Chinese forces in 1988 and has resulted losing Johnson South Reef in the South China Sea Vietnam currently occupies the Spratly Islands Vietnam claims that the Spratly Islands it s within the Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ as outlined under UNCLOS Vietnam also re claim that the Paracel Islands after the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975 even though the North Vietnamese prime minister had recognized Beijing s rights to the islands in a letter to Premier Zhou Enlai in 1958 Malaysia claims several numbers of islands in the South China Sea and its claims based on its EEZ of 200 miles as defined by to maritime features in the Spratly Islands from its 200 nautical miles 370km EEZ based on Article 76 of the UNCLOS Malaysia has put its navy and military facilities stationed on five features in the South China Sea namely Swallow Reef since 1983 Mariveles Reef since 1986 Ardasier Reef since 1986 Erica Reef since 1999 and Investigator Shoal since 1999 Malaysian navy also regularly patrol and visit Dallas Reef though it is without permanent structures including Royal Charlotte and Louisa Reefs Based on the definition of its territorial sea under UNCLOS on Spratly Islands Louisa Reef has been claimed by Brunei Darussalam Though Louisa Reef has never explicitly relinquished its claim by Malaysia it did acknowledge Brunei s exclusive rights to its territorial sea which contains the reef Though not a significant maritime feature Brunei was did oil and gas as well as minerals surveys of the region and generated positive result of reef area have found it to be potentially rich of mineral resources

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