Essay Example on Haryana is located in the northwest of India

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Haryana is located in the northwest of India and was earlier the part of Punjab and carved out on 1st November 1966 85 area of Haryana is under cultivation 78 of its population is engaged in agriculture Haryana state is the second largest contributor of food grains to India But condition is very bad in case of fundamental services just like the other most underdeveloped states of the country Haryana state is located between 27º 39 and 30º 35 N latitude and between 74º27 and 77º36 E longitude with just 1 37 of the total geographical area and less than 2 of India's population Almost 1 3 of the total area of the state falls in the National Capital Region Haryana has urban population of 88 lacs which is 35 of total population Urban population has seen growth of 44 in past decade Haryana has 1652 75 square kilometers of urban area Rural population is 16531493 which are almost more than the double of the urban population which is 8805356 out of total population Water Supply Status in Haryana There are various water sources in Haryana but most of the population of the state depends upon tap water supply Although there is other alternate sources of water supply such as tube wells hand pumps canals and ponds etc

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Tap water provides 56 47 tube wells provide 12 07 and hand pumps provide 11 05 of total water supply In Haryana 2966053 rural households 63 6 tap water and 1751901 77 5 coverage with tap water urban households have access to piped water supply Census of India 2011 Destruction of Groundwater Recharge Systems Direct and indirect human interferences had severely affected the groundwater recharge systems Deforestation mining urbanization global warming and overexploitation of groundwater are the major cause of destruction of groundwater in state Haryana Total 16 districts of Haryana i e Mahendragarh Rewari Bhiwani Rohtak Panipat Faridabad Gurgaon Hissar Fatehabad Sirsa Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panchkula Yamunagar experience a drop in groundwater level of over 2 meters over a ten year period or a drop of over 4 meters for 20 year period since 2004 GOI 2016 AREA SELECTED FOR THE STUDY Figure 1 a b a Location map of Fatehabad in Haryana India b Location map of all blocks in Fatehabad Haryana India The district of Fatehabad is bounded by 28 48 15 to 29 17 10 North latitudes and 76 28 40 to 77 12 45 East longitude covering an area of 2490 sq km Fatehabad is one of the smallest districts in the Haryana State and covers 5 69 area of the state The district is surrounded by Punjab state in the north Jind district in the east Sirsa district in the west direction Hissar district and Rajasthan state in the South The district headquarter Fatehabad is connected by metalled roads with important cities of the state and Delhi It is also connected by broad gauge railway line with Delhi Tohana Ratia Bhuna and Bhattu Kalan are important towns in the district Fatehabad district is one of the sparsely populated districts of the state The total population of the district as per 2011 census is 942 011 The population density is 371 persons per sq km against the state average of 477 persons per sq km census of India 2011 RAINFALL AND CLIMATE OF THE DISTRICT Climate Fatehabad district can be classified into tropical desert and steppe arid and hot which is mainly dry with very hot summer and cold winter except during monsoon season when moist air of oceanic origin penetrates into the district The hot weather season starts from mid March to last week of the June followed by the south west monsoon which lasts till September The transition period from September to October forms the post monsoon season

The winter season starts late in November and remains up to first week of March Rainfall The normal annual rainfall of the district is 373 mm and normal monsoon Rainfall is 297 mm which is unevenly distributed over the area in the 22 normal rainy days The south west monsoon sets in from last week of June and withdraws in end of September contributed about 80 of annual rainfall July and August are the wettest months Rest 20 rainfall is received during non monsoon period in the wake of western disturbances and thunder storms Generally rainfall in the district increases from southwest to northeast Mean temperature of the district is 41 6 C and highest temperature observed during May June and mean minimum temperature is 5 5 C and lowest temperature observed during January CGWB 2007 2013 HYDROGEOLOGY The Indo Gangetic plain is the largest alluvium plain of the world Singh et al 2014 The geological formations met within the district studied area are Indo Gangetic alluvium consisting of Newer and older alluvium with a thin blanket of aeolian deposits The age of these formations range from upper Pleistocene to Recent which are conformable with each other Exploratory drilling in this area indicates that these Quaternary unconsolidated sediments are underlain by hard rock formations of Achaean age comprising of Granites schists and gneisses IRRIGATION AND DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN DISTRICT FATEHABAD There are good irrigation facilities in Fatehabad district 70 of the total irrigated area which is about 1400 sq km in the district is through Bhakra main canal especially in Bhuna Bhattu and Fatehabad and 30 of the area is irrigated by ground water especially in Ratia and Tohana blocks Canal irrigation is preferred in the area where the groundwater quality is not good In most of the towns and villages domestic water supply is being augmented by hand pumps Towns and villages located in fresh water areas have tubewell water supply where as others have canal based water supply

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