Essay Example on Humans start to challenge themselves with Exercise








Introduction As humans start to challenge themselves with exercise with a program the human body starts to respond to combined changes in most if not all of it physiological systems These are known as the skeletal muscular cardio respiratory nervous and energy systems which physiological adaptations to exercise occurs within aerobic and resistance training exercises With exercise programs normally lasting 6 weeks Physiological Adaptation of the skeletal Bone density increases by consuming the correct nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D Regular exercise helps slow down the rate of the skeletal ageing which means bones that are more active have greater density than sedentary bones A mixture of both high impact aerobic exercise and resistance training have benefits but resistance training may have more bone building benefits than aerobic exercise cathe com 2018 such jogging skipping or an activity that both feet together are lifted off the ground With a progressive strength training program Ligament strength is increases when the ligaments become more pliable to handle the strain This also takes place as the muscles and tendons get stronger Improved range of motion occurs when increased production of synovial fluid the thickness of the fluid reduces allowing movement in the joints Physiological Adaptation of the muscular Muscles have increased volume of contractile proteins which increase muscular hypertrophy This occurs through resistance training such as a shoulder press

For example weightlifters exercise their arms and shoulders so their muscles hypertrophy and improves their strength Fahey T D 2018 The benefits of hypertrophy are that the muscle size increases resulting in being able to withstand a greater force this adapts and improves resulting in increased muscle strength This happens when the muscles are being used more than they are used to called overload With muscle contraction the tendons tough bands of connective tissue pull against the bone to create movement For example when the biceps muscles contracts tendon pulls against the lower arm bone to raise the hand towards the shoulder Tendons increase in strength when moved against a heavy or resistive force usually used in resistance training Physiological Adaptation of the Cardio Respiratory system When the heart enlarges in size the left ventricle stretches more letting in more blood supply The muscle walls become thicker and greater as well as the contractility resulting in increased stroke volume at resting and during exercise Cardiac output greatly increases during maximum effort in exercise with a sufficient increase in Stroke Volume This results in greater oxygen supply waste removal carbon dioxide and improvement in performance and efficiency Hypertrophy training can also result in these adaptations occurring in the cardiovascular system however the degree of adaptation will be less significant than the adaptation caused by aerobic fitness and muscular endurance training www ptdirect com 2018 With more oxygen used in the tissues and more carbon dioxide produced this creates a larger difference between the blood and tissue Aerobic training leads to improving the efficiency of the body's tissues at absorbing oxygen and getting rid of Carbon dioxide but muscular endurance training helps the transportation and improves the capacity for this gas exchange 

Physiological Adaptation of the energy system Large amounts of energy are produced by the aerobic system even at the lowest intensity for example long distance running As this can be sustained for long periods of time if the lungs can get enough supply of oxygen Exercising between 30 seconds to 3 minutes causes and increase in the lactic acid system due to oxygen not being present during this process This build up within the muscle cells restricts the muscles to contract The body can get rid of the lactic acid faster due to the more effective process called capillarisation this is when the capillaries increase which means the higher amount being produced the body is able to manage this and increase the tolerance to lactic acid during resistance training exercises If there is a higher number of mitochondria are present in the muscles the muscles can then produce more energy at any time This can have a greater impact on fitness levels but both resistance and aerobic exercise help the muscle and mitochondria develop but Aerobic exercise proves to be more effective at continuously stimulating mitochondrial growth Livehealthy 2018 Physiological Adaptation of the Nervous system Everyone benefits from being able to respond quicker during physical activity with increased circulation comes faster reaction times Which are created by the accuracy and speed of cognitive abilities and are influenced by components of dietary requirements and physical health

Exercise especially aerobic based exercise helps to increase your heart rate and improve circulation to your brain Anton Reid 2018 Neuromuscular facilitation also known as muscle memory the brain forwards signals through motor pathways to let the muscles know when how fast and how intense the contract is to produce movements With repetition concentration no longer needs to be intense to produce the desired movements Resistance training helps so that movement patterns can be accessed through out performance When developing strength the neuromuscular system goes through a circle teach the brain to fire correct muscles to contract with a new movement add resistance recruit more muscle fibres to oppose the resistance build strength and adapt to the resistance increase the complexity or resistance and repeat Bridge Athletic 2018 Neurotransmission is increased by regular exercise that can help to reduce the risks of diseases that could cause brain problems Both aerobic and resistance training intensity of different exercises including short term exercise can help the cognition improve Exercises such as long distance running influences the pathways that produce serotonin dopamine and norepinephrine and possibly many more Conclusion With regular varied intensity exercise participants would find measurable increases within the physiological and cognitive systems of the body as well as increased energy over the 6 week duration of a program

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