Essay Example on Importance of Water Water is an important source of life

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LITERATURE REVIEW 2 1 Importance of Water Water is an important source of life In the Quran verse 30 surah al Anbiya explains in its meaning and We make it from the water every living thing then why not ye believe This verse shows how much water plays an important role in the creation of various creatures of Allah SWT and for that the creature also desires for water Water is the most important source for the continuity of life for all beings on this earth Water is a natural resource very important for life on earth whether human animal or plant Humans animals and plants need water resources for survival and on the surface of the earth about 70 of them are composed of water sources Water sources comprise of river water water supply water basins groundwater seawater and others Only 3 of freshwater is available from all the water that is found on the ground and the rest are saltwater Hamidi 1999 On the one hand water is essential for human survival Water is used in almost every aspect of human life Not only for drinking water is also used in various forms of daily activities such as washing bathing worship and others In addition to domestic uses water is also important in economic activities such as industry manufacturing and transportation In fact water also allows electricity generation to occur in dams 



The most widely used water use is found in homes compared to other places where water consumption at home ranges from 40 to 60 of the total supply of water and home water use is for drinks cooking washing washing bathing and sanitation In Malaysia average water consumption is 230 liters per day Nik Fuaad 2011 In 2000 93 2 of the total population of Malaysia had access to safe drinking water which accounted for 98 of urban areas and 90 of rural areas National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program NDWQSP Therefore water issues are a very important issue especially water safety issues In addition diarrheal diseases kill about 2 5 million people worldwide each year most of whom are children under the age of 5 Kosek et al 2003 2000 Diseases involving unsafe sanitary and clean water use are 88 WHO 2002 Various types of bacteria protozoa and harmful viruses that are found in human and animal feces are known to be the causes of diarrhea which can be spread mainly through the use of contaminated water Leclerc et al 2002 Therefore if the water is polluted it will affect people and the environment 2 2 Water Pollution 2 3 Bacterial Pollution Sources Bacteria breeding through binocular hemisphere binary fraction which means a bacterial cell will be 2 4 8 and so on 



The process will take effect very quickly but it does not involve mitosis even meiosis Tebbutt 1971 Rubbish and sewage disposal are abundant in marine waters and this causes serious water pollution where trash and sewage flush into the body of water is an important source of nutrients for pathogenic organisms breed and grow Therefore water is unsafe in use and will affect human health Mohamad Omar 1987 Quite a lot of studies reported that human activities and sewage effluents can be bases of fecal bacteria in water and sediment Mallin et al 2006 Mudge and Duge 2005 The source of fecal indicator bacteria has always presumed to be anthropogenic such as sewage agricultural and urban runoff Evanson and Ambrose 2005 Aquaculture events such as fish cage and shrimp farming culture can contribute to bacterial pollution Ling et al 2010 The aquaculture waste caused not only chemical alterations but also biological alterations and support better growth of bacteria and algal bloom Kullman et al 2007 Estimates of E coli are associated with the number of birds seagull in the morning and evening in the water on Lake Michigan coast Ksoll et al 2007 Bacteria that are always found or detected in water are coliforms Coliforms are not a single type of bacteria but a combination of bacteria that includes many strains such as E coli Indicator bacteria which live in gastrointestinal tracts of human and animals is fecal bacteria Anderson et al 2005 E coli lives in intestine of warm blooded animal form a huge percentage of fecal coliform bacteria Davis et al 2006 E coli is an anaerobic bacterium of Gram negative faculties associated with gastrointestinal tract The species name coli comes from the usual concentration in the large intestine or colon Batzing 2002 E coli can develop in water or subtropical water Anderson et al 2005 2 4 Environmental factors One of the properties of the water contains a variety of microorganisms to form a balanced ecological system 



The presence and type of microorganisms depends on the water quality and some other environmental factors such as turbidity temperature pH and dissolved oxygen DO Tebbutt 1971 Environmental factors containing waste matter oxygen levels ultraviolet radiation temperature variations pH and predators such as protozoan and virus may contribute to bacterial growing Haller et al 2009 and Mallin et al 2006 The optimum pH for bacterial growth lies between 6 5 and 7 5 Tchobanoglous et al 2003 Several studies have reported that decreases in pH result in increases in die off rates Ling et al 2005 Factors that affect water temperature is alterations in air temperature cloudiness or wastes discharged into the water from households Tchobanoglous et al 2003 Most bacteria choose a neutral PH to reproduce but still exist that can exist in high acidity It is usually present if there is a humid environment having low temperature and presence of oxygen Hamidi 1999


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