Essay Example on Learning is viewed as an individual cognitive Effort








According to cognitive approach language learning is viewed as an individual cognitive effort The possibility of learning occurrence is dependent on learner s cognitive capacity as a product of notching input output and interaction These are the main theoretical components of the cognitive approach The followers of the cognitive approach view the language learning especially second or foreign language learning as organizing and establishing the knowledge of that language in the learner s cognition When time passes this knowledge is expected to be used automatically for speaking and understanding This view is represented in Krashen s claim that comprehensible input is all learners need to learn a language The comprehensible input is to some extent beyond the learner s current grammatical knowledge and capability sheen 2012 Comprehensible input is necessary but insufficient for acquisition to take place Corrective feedback strategies can be explicit or implicit Implicit or indirect corrective feedback indicates that the students have errors and the teacher does not provide the right form directly and does not correct it This can be done by underlining the errors or using cursors to show omissions in the student s text or by placing a cross in the margin next to the line containing the error In effect this involves deciding whether or not to show the precise location of the error Ellis 2009

For example recasts are indirect and implicit it is a type of corrective feedback strategy through which the teacher reformulates the learners ill formed or incomplete utterances they are not introduced by phrases such as use this word you should say and you mean keshavarz 2015 Indirect feedback is often preferred to direct feedback because it encourages students to reflect about linguistic forms Indirect feedback is indeed more effective in enabling students to correct their errors It leads to long term learning Ferris and Roberts 2001 In contrast an explicit correction defined by Lyster and Ranta 1997 as the explicit provision of the correct form As the teacher provides the correct form he or she clearly indicates to the learner that what the student said was incorrect Carroll 2001 claimed that explicit CF is likely to be more effective than implicit feedback Research which has investigated the effects of these two types of feedback e g Ellis et al 2006 lends support to this claim The advantage of explicit or direct corrective feedback is that it provides learners with explicit guidance about how to correct their errors This is obviously desirable for learners who do not know what the correct form is i e are not capable of self correcting the error Sheen 2007 suggested that direct corrective feedback can be effective in promoting acquisition of specific grammatical features Sociocultural theory SCT Sociocultural theory SCT provides support for corrective feedback as it helps to scaffold learning in social interaction and support the subsequent internalization of new linguistic forms Aljaafreh Lantolf 1994 From the perspective of SCT there is no single type of corrective feedback that is preferable rather the feedback needs to be graduated to provide the learner with the minimal level of assistance needed for repair to occur

This involves finding the least explicit form of correction that will elicit self correction by the learner The sociocultural emphasizes the roles of teachers and learners within the process of corrective feedback They also emphasize the context in which they work and the specific pedagogic activity in which they are involved Ellis 2008 2010 Corrective feedback in sociocultural theory SCT Sociocultural theory SCT views language learning as interactionally driven but occurs as a result of interaction Lantolf 2000 Thus correction is not something done to learners but rather something carried out with learners It enables the joint construction of a Zone of Proximal Development a sociocognitive state noticeable in interaction where learners are helped to use linguistic features that they cannot employ independently The fundamental claim of SCT is that corrective feedback needs to be graduated that is adjusted to the level of the individual learner to enable them to self correct Sociocultural feedback is a dialogic interaction that allows an expert teacher to create a context in which novices can participate actively in their own learning Anton 1999 ZPDs are opportunities that can be provided where the gap between learners already knowledge or skills and knowledge or skills yet to be got can be bridged when assisted scaffolded by a more advanced peer or teacher ZPDs should be collaboratively created by knowing when to give help and when to refuse it through the interaction of the tutor and the student successful ZPDs make the student less dependent

The amount of teacher or more knowledgeable peer assistance i e CF determines whether or not ZPD is constructed and self regulation is achieved This determines the learners internalization of the correction In other words once self regulation is reached students were able to internalize the correct TL forms CF as a cause for regulation to be reached is claimed to help students internalization Role of feedback in sociocultural theory SCT Sociocultural theory SCT draws on Vygotsky s notions of scaffolding mediation and ZPD The feedback in SCT is considered as a dialogic process between students and teachers Lantolf 2006 Aljaafreh and Lantolf 1994 suggested that effective corrective feedback and language learning depend on mediation provided by other individuals teachers or peers who are dialogically in collaboration with the learner and co create a zone of proximal development Such collaboration means that students are not provided with direct or indirect feedback within an SCT approach Instead the focus is on the ability to move between more implicit and explicit feedback depending on the ZPD of students

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