Essay Example on Literature review Global pollution has reached to its Severity








Literature review Global pollution has reached to its severity due to various natural and anthropogenic activities leading to the pollution of several terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems in presence of non metals metals inorganic and organic compounds Heavy metals are contemplated as trace elements due its trace amount ppb range to less than 10ppm of presence in environmental matrices In general heavy metals can be naturally found in earth's crust and several natural occurrences such as volcanic eruptions and weathering significantly contribute their role to heavy metal pollution 1 3 4 7 8 NIH Fergusson Bradl H He ZL Shallari S Nriagu JO Environmental contamination including human exposure can also be ensued through anthropogenic activities such as smelting and mining operations industrial production as well as use and use of metals and metal containing compounds 4 7 NIH He ZL Goyer RA Herawati N Shallari S for domestic and agricultural purpose Several other factors have contribution behind environmental adulteration are soil erosion of metal ions heavy metal leaching metal corrosion sediment re suspension atmospheric deposition and also vaporization of metal from water resources to groundwater and soli 8NIH Nriagu JO

Environment with assorted industrial sources of heavy metals includes petroleum combustion metal processing in refineries nuclear power stations and coal burning in power plants paper processing plants wood preservation plastics textiles microelectronics and high tension lines 9 11NIH Arruti A Sträter E Pacyna JM Several physical factors such as temperature adsorption phase association and sequestration have influence on the bioavailability of heavy metals Chemical factors also influence the speciation at thermodynamic equilibrium lipid solubility complexation kinetics and octanol water partition coefficients 12 14NIH Hamelink JL whereas biological factors such as trophic interactions species characteristics and biochemical physiological adaptation also have significant performance 13 15NIH Verkleji JAS Arsenic Among the list of heavy metals here we are concerned about arsenic that is categorized as a metalloid with its high atomic weight Arsenic is notable as a potent carcinogen in relation with health hazards as well as environmental context

The omnipresence nature of arsenic ranked it as 12th in the body of human 14th in the sea water 20th in earth s crust 14 14 E A Woolson Arsenic has been found to play a controversial role in human history since its isolation by Albertus Magnus in 1250 A D It has been performing its role for medicinal purpose including diverse areas such as agriculture livestock electronics metallurgy and industry Now it is well accredited as carcinogen even at low level of consumption 2 Occurrence The environmental abundance of arsenic includes the natural and anthropogenic sources Long before the harmful approach of human beings towards the balance of nature the ubiquity of arsenic was found throughout the earth crusts air water sediments soil and living organisms Arsenic is found to be a rare crystal element covering around five hundred thousandths of 1 0 00005 of the earth's crust 15 J H Gulledge There are several sources such as leaching of geological materials mining wastes inputs from geothermal sources and landfills have significant influence on arsenic contribution in ground water as well as surface water W elch e t a l 1 9 88 K orte F ern a nd o 1 99 1 16 17

Anthropogenic sources surpass natural sources in the environment by 3 1 18 94 E A Woolson 1983 Arsenic is releasing during the utilization of natural resources by man into the air water and soil Eventually these emissions can influence the different environmental biota Accumulation of arsenic in soil can be through the application of fertilizers use of arsenical pesticides dust releasing from the flaming of fossil fuels disposal of animal and industrial wastes 19 20 95 96 W T Piver E A Woolson There are several countries such as Mexico USA Germany France Peru Sweden USSR Namibia and China that are accounted for the production of about 90 of the world arsenic production 21 22 97 98 K W Nelson U S Department During 1970s for agriculture purpose there was about 80 ingestion of arsenic Presently the uses of arsenic for agricultural purpose become restricted About 97 of the produced arsenic comes in end product manufacture as white arsenic and the residual 3 remains as metal for metallurgic additives in distinct copper and lead alloys 22 98 U S Department

At initial phase arsenic was extensively used for preparation of pesticides and insecticides Different pesticides such as Ca3AsO4 lead arsenate Paris Green copper acetoarsenite copper acetoarsenite DSMA disodium methanearsonate H3AsO4 MSMA monosodium methanearsonate and cacodylic acid are used as pesticides in cotton production Since 1890 sodium arsenite the inorganic arsenicals were generally used as weed killers mostly non selectively as soil sterilants 23 103 Environmental Protection Agency For many years arsenic acid has been used widely as a cotton desiccant In early 1918 in USA the first wood preservative Fluor Chrome Arsenic Phenol FCAP was used Formerly Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate ACA and Chromated Copper Arsenate CCA in a combination were used in most of the arsenical wood preservatives 24 105 C L Perker Several arsenic compounds are being used for feed additives such as 3 nitro 4 hydroxy phenylarsonic acid H3AsO4 4 nitrophenylarsonic acid etc From the very earliest centuries the medicinal merits of arsenic are being acknowledged due to its numerous practical applicability such as arsenic offers plumpness to the figure softness and cleanliness of the skin beauty and freshness to the complexion as well as recover the breathing problem 25 26 107 108 Arsenic eaters T

Sollman Arsenic can be found in common medicinal preparations that are Asiatic pills arsenic trioxide and black pepper Fowler s solution potassium arsenite neoarsphenamine Donovan s solution arsenic and mercuric iodides arsphenamine Salvarsan tryparsamide arsthinol Balarsen de Valagin s solution liquor arsenii chloridi etc 27 99 B L Vallee Moreover Arsenic compounds are notorious for its poisonous nature that leads to be used as favored homicidal as well as suicidal agent

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