Essay Example on Motivating Employees

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How can Motivation be defined and which factors relate to motivation Motivation is psychological processes that stimulate and direct goal directed behavior which it can be classified in 2 factor personal factors and contextual factors Personal factors personality ability core self evaluations emotions attitudes needs values work attitudes Contextual factors organization culture cross cultural values physical environment reward and reinforcement group norms communication technology leader behavior organizational design organizational climate job design 6 2 What is the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic rewards is the payoff from others like money bonus but intrinsic rewards is the satisfaction in performing by itself like feeling of success satisfy in your work 6 3 What are the 4 major perspectives on motivation Describe each briefly and on what points the overlap 1 Content perspectives related to theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people which include 4 theories Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory McClelland's acquired needs theory Deci and Ryan's self determination theory Herzberg's two factor theory 2 Process perspectives related to the thought processes by which people decide how to act which it has 3 type equality theory expectancy theory and goal setting theory 3 Job design is the division of an organization's work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance which it can be classified 2 type one tradition fitting people to jobs one modern fitting jobs to people 



4 Reinforcement suggest behaviour with positive will repeated but negative will not repeated 6 4 Describe Herzberg's Two Factor Theory and how it can be used in motivating employees Herzberg's two factor theory related to work satisfaction and dissatisfaction which work satisfaction from motivate factors but work dissatisfaction from hygiene factors Motivate factors work satisfaction what will make my people satisfied Such as achievement recognition the work itself responsibility and advancement and growth All of these are affect the job content or the reward of work performance Hygiene factors work dissatisfaction why are my people dissatisfaction Such as salary and security working conditions interpersonal relationships company policy and supervisors All of these are affect the job context in which people work 6 5 What is the Equity theory and how does it work Equity theory is model of motivation that explain about fairness and justice which compare your inputs and outputs with others Inputs

What are you putting into the job time effort training experience intelligence creativity seniority status Outputs What are you getting out of the job pay benefits praise reorganization bonuses promotions status perquisites Comparison How do you think your ratio of inputs and rewards compares with those of others if they perceive equity they don t change behaviour but if they perceive inequity they will change behaviour 6 6 What is the Expectancy 

Theory and how does it work Expectancy theory related to people are motivated by how much they want something and how they think they are to get it which it relationship between your effort your performance outcomes that affected by expectancy instrumentality and valence Expectancy level of effort lead to level of performance Instrumentality successful performance of the task lead to the outcome desired Valence assign to the possible outcome or reward 6 7 What are the principal elements of the 3 process perspectives Equity



 Theory Expectancy Theory and Goal Setting Theory 1 Equity theory is model of motivation that explain about fairness and justice which compare your inputs and outputs with others 2 Expectancy theory related to people are motivated by how much they want something and how they think they are to get it which it relationship between your effort your performance outcomes that affected by expectancy instrumentality and valence 3 Goal setting theory related to employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenge but achievable 6 8 what is the definition of job design and what are 2 techniques of job design Job design is the division of an organization's work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance which it can be classified 2 type one tradition fitting people to jobs one modern fitting jobs to people 6 9 Describe the 5 job attributes of the job characteristics model 1 Skill variety wide range of different skills and abilities 2 Task identity a worker to perform all the tasks needed to complete the job 3 Task significance a job affects the lives of other people 4 Autonomy a jobs allow employee to make choices about task and decide how it perform 5 Feedback how well they are performing the job 6 10 What are the 4 types of reinforcement Describe each briefly 1 Positive reinforcement use positive to strengthen a behaviour


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