Essay Example on Nanotechnology has started leaving conforms of Laboratory









Nanotechnology has started leaving conforms of laboratory and conquering the new application to change our lives Nanotechnology is science engineering and technology conducted at the nanoscale which is about 1 to 100 nanometers Nanoscience and Nanotechnology are the study of extremely small things and can be used across all other science fields such as biology chemistry physics material science energy science and engineering The concept of nanotechnology was firstly given by Richard Feynman through his famous lecture entitled There is a plenty of rooms at the bottom at the American Institute of Technology The word nanotechnology was firstly introduced by Prof Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University On the other hand biotechnology uses the knowledge and techniques of biology to manipulate molecular genetic and cellular processes to develop products and services and is used in diverse fields from medicine to agriculture Nanobiotechnology is considered to be the unique fusion of biotechnology and nanotechnology by which classical microtechnology can be merged to a molecular biological approach in real 

Nanobiotechnology can play a vital role in developing and implementing many useful tools in study of life Nanobiotechnology represents an economic alternative for chemical and physical methods of nanoparticles formation These methods of synthesis can be divided on intracellular and extracellular Ahmad et al 2005 Among the variety of nanoparticles with their applications metallic nanoparticles like gold and silver nanoparticles are playing most prominent role in biology and medicine Raghavendra et al 2014 Siemieniec and Kruk 2013 Cai et al 2005 With the rapid development of new chemical and physical methods concern for environmental contaminations is regularly heightened as the said procedures involved in the synthesis of nanomaterials generates a large amount of hazardous by products Thus there is an immediate need for green chemistry that includes clean nontoxic and environment friendly methods of nanoparticle synthesis with precise control over the shape and size Verma et al 2011 The synthesis of nanoparticles with specific size shape composition and various important characteristics has explored the scope of their applications in various fields including agriculture cosmetics textiles food medicine and environment Oza et al 2012 Advances in the field of nanotechnology have resulted in the production of different metal nanoparticles which have found innovative applications in various fields 

These particles are ultra small in size biocompatible have high surface area to mass ratio and show considerable surface activity along with plasmon resonance bands Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using biological entities has great interest due to their physicochemical properties which are not observed either in individual molecules or in bulk metals Nature has devised various processes for the synthesis of nano and micro scaled inorganic materials which have contributed to the development of relatively new and largely unexplored area of research based on biosynthesis of nanomaterials Deendayal Mandal et al 2006 Metal nanoparticles have been produced by different chemical methods which include the use of chemical reductants like hydrazine hydrate Kajori Das and Padma Thiagarajan 2014 However biological methods which make use of fungi bacteria and plants are more eco friendly and are being explored as alternatives to conventional techniques which invariably involve hazardous waste generation Adopting green nanotechnology for this purpose will be a positive step towards reduction of global warming and also lead to sustainable development Further biological routes are easy usually involve a single step with enhanced energy efficiency and are economical too Most biogenic nanomaterials synthesized using diverse microbial flora are metallic nanomaterials such as silver and gold nanoparticles 

Use of silver in therapeutics is well documented but the introduction of silver nanoparticles has resulted in expansion of its applications Bankura et al 2010 Silver nanoparticles are used as nanodevices cosmetics and biosensors and also have been considered as potent antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant microorganisms Ibrahim et al 2015 Similarly gold has been used for centuries in curing various ailments and recently gold nanoparticles have demonstrated significant advances in medicine such as drug delivery biocatalysts and bio labeling Baker et al 2015 Among the biological entities the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles has successfully competed with conventional methods in synthesizing size-dependent nanomaterials Microorganisms can synthesize nanomaterials in aqueous solutions and the nanomaterials can be easily separated thus becoming eco friendly and cost-effective Hulkoti and Taranath 2014 Microorganisms are an inexhaustible resource that can be preserved and reused unlike plants which can only be used once Azmath et al 2015 This causes an imbalance to plant diversity especially among endangered species and gives microorganisms an advantage over their plant counterparts Azmath et al 2015 Among the microbial community endophytes have made a significant impact by secreting diverse secondary metabolites with numerous biological activities 

Although there has been significant research on endophytes interference of endophytes in synthesizing nanomaterials is at an initial stage and it can generate major advances Baker and Satish 2016 In view of all these a detail survey of available literature for various biosynthesis methods their corresponding merits and demerits anticancer activity of gold nanoparticles and future aspects of synthesis are presented in this review

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