Essay Example on Need for rules laws dictating human Behavior

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Throughout human history there has always been a need for rules laws dictating human behavior Not only do we find rules and laws in large complex societies but also cities and communities We find some of the first known laws in the year 2300 BCE in ancient Samaria where the ancient Samarian rulers codified offenses into written words Linda S Miller 2018 Since those early days mankind has continued to establish laws governing the behavior of people towards one another If we fast forwarding to the 17th century England we see that law enforcement was divided into two separate functions There was a day watch which was composed mainly of constables who functions as jailers and prefilled other government duties and a night watch which was composed of citizens from the community Linda S Miller 2018 The night watch duties seem like they were more emergency management oriented I came to this conclusion because their duties primarily consisted of watching out for fires and bad weather but they were also responsible for keeping an eye on the community and watching out for wrongdoers Any citizens who saw a crime being committed was expected to cry out for help By the end of the 18th century we see a rise in the number of citizens being hired by the wealthy as watchmen which paved the way towards having paid police officers in England By the Industrial Revolution England was suffering from low unemployment and poverty which of course caused a rise in crime Sir Robert peel was appointed as home Sec where he proposed that private citizens be hired as full time police officers Parliament then convened and signed the Metropolitan police act in 1829 and this is where we see some of the first modern concepts of policing In the early 19th century the purpose of police officers was to prevent crime from happening not to detect them The roles of policed primarily to maintain order and to patrol the local community 



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The United States used the day and night watch system well into the early parts of the 19th century In the early 1830s cities in the United States start hiring citizens as paid daytime only police officers In 1933 Philadelphia became the 1st state in the United States to have full time paid police officers Much like today there was a day shift and a night shift In 1944 the city of New York put both day and night time police under the control of a police chief At the time this was a step towards what would eventually become a modern day police department Many other cities in the United States followed the examples being set by New York city and Philadelphia Soon the police chiefs realize that there was an issue with the quality of police officers hired Some of them were found to be incompetent lazy and ignorant while others were found to be competent honest hard working individuals that believed in what they were doing At the beginning of the 20th century law enforcement was one of the only government sanctioned around the clock services available to citizens Linda S Miller 2018 In the United States early reform for law enforcement started in the 1930s when a police chief named August Vollmer established what would be the model for every other police department in the United States during this time He is often credited as being the father of policing in the United States He had many innovations including utilization of radios and patrol cars fingerprinting and handwriting analysis Linda S Miller 2018 August Vollmer also established a police school at his department He also wrote a book entitled the police and modern society 1936 He also established one of the 1st colleges for law enforcement With all these accomplishments it s no wonder that he is looked at as being the father of policing in the United States In the 1900s we start to see many social changes in the United States that impact police all over the nation We see this especially in the mid 1960s during the civil rights movement This is the period where the American people start to view the police as the enemy

Television only helped to reinforce this viewpoint by showing footage of police officers beating people in the streets We also start to see phrases such as police riots and police brutality As a direct result of this we see reform efforts in the 1970s Many policing organizations were committed to researching new and better methods of policing In the 1980s we entered the community era where we see police departments trying to become more involved in their communities We also see police departments placing more of an emphasis on preventing a crime instead of just reacting to one Currently we are seeing even more of an emphasis being placed on community policing According to the US Department of Justice only about 16 9 of US citizens ages 16 and up have ever had face to face interaction with police officers I have read many comments on social media platforms where people expressed a great desire for police officers that were more in touch with their neighborhoods and the people that live there I think community policing is the future of criminal justice It's important for police officers to understand the neighborhood and communities that they patrol Reflecting on the history of criminal justice I don't think there's a whole lot I would change I say this because we only learn from our mistakes New techniques technologies and standard operating procedures usually come into being because of the need for them Professionals in the field of cruel justice are constantly researching and reevaluating the way things are done at all levels and I am confident that as time continues techniques and procedures for policing will only get better


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