Essay Example on Norms which are applied in order to influence other actors Behavior









Stemming from these definitions the normative power concept can be described as the power of norms which are applied in order to influence other actors behavior The EU is not the first normative power described and the concept can be observed in the practices of states like the US or Russia for example The discussion of the historical aspect of the normative power exists at the conceptual level and in the external policy of other influential states the difference being the mechanisms of implementation The characteristic aspect of the EU that distinguishes it from other state powers is that through the Normative Power Europe the EU puts emphasis on the values of liberty democracy human rights and the rule of law The main difference observed is that the EU is concerned to represent the image of a peaceful Europe and it is more focused on regional and less on global aspirations with an emphasis on different and not only military means of influence and a lack of missionary spirit in comparison with the US National Security Strategy When we compare the EU with Russia in terms of normativity there is a different approach in both cases 

The European identity is constructed in opposition to its past through the concept of the past as other whereas the Russian perception on itself is that of a country whose identity is deeply rooted in the past During the last few decades the European Union has increasingly tried to characterize itself as an entity guided by moral standards and rules agreed by all member states This self conception also guides EU s foreign policy where instead of military power more emphasis is put on guiding by example through promoting rule of law or using economic and political means As a result the EU has been variously described as soft power normative power or civilian power These qualifications have been created in order to delimit the EU from the military and realist concept of power When distinguishing normative from ethical and or civilian Manners discusses that normative is about how policy should be how the EU should reconstruct the current practices Manners argues that the EU represents a new and distinct kind of actor within the international system and transcends the anarchic and self interested behavior of states These claims indicate the unique nature of the normative power Europe concept through which the EU acts as the force for good for other non EU states Moreover Europe is perceived as a cosmopolitan entity advantaged in this regard to promote normativity in international relations and to give up on the argument of force In this regard the EU has promoted the trust of external partners that there is a power which can be seen on the international scene as a promoter of peace and democracy 

The EU is perceived as a political model and a saving power as an example for East European countries and other states in the EU neighborhood According to Manners normative power concept is applicable to the EU alone and cannot be applied to other actors especially not to the United States He has indicated that the militarization of the EU risks making it more like other traditional great powers whilst leaving the problems of interstate politics precisely where they were Hedley Bull on the other hand considers that the EU has to gain military power in order to be an international actor Ian Manners argues that after the Cold War the civilian and military power are not enough to describe what the EU is and that besides being military and civilian the EU is a normative power Normative Power Europe theory states that the EU is a new and unique international actor a sui generis case The notion of normative power is used to refer to the power of norms to the way these norms are interpreted Former President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso declared that the EU is one of the most important if not the most important normative power in the world There is not another case where the United States or China or Russia has been able to have so many other countries following their patterns The Normative Power Europe concept has been developed by Ian Manners in 2002 and it has become widely used in policy debates and in academic studies on external relations of the European Union Manners claims that the European Union can be seen as a normative power one that diffuses internal norms in its external relations According to Manners the EU should act to extend its norms into the international system 

The normative power as described by Manners is seen to focus on following aspects Normativity in the sense of inviting value judgments on what is desirable a form of power that works through immaterial channels and a type of actor with a particular normative identity Manners described three meanings of normative power the first meaning of normative power is the emphasis on normative theory that is how we judge and justify truth claims in social science The second meaning of normative power is a form of power that is ideational rather than physical the emphasis being on the ability to use normative influence rather than physical force And the third meaning of normative power is a characterization of an ideal type of international actor Manners has further identified the roots of the different nature of NPE According to Manners this difference is rooted in three sources historical context legacy of two destructive wars hybrid polity the features of the Union as a post Westphalian order with institutions of supranational and international levels and political legal constitutionalism

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