Essay Example on Occupational Health's Main focus is on the Development of work Organizations

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INTRODUCTION Occupational healths main focus is on the development of work organizations and working cultures in a way which endorses safety and health at job and also promotes smooth operations and a positive social climate and may increase productivity of the undertakings Joint ILO WHO committee on occupational health 1950 Employers should promote such working environments which reduced medical cost and motivate employees by providing healthy and safe work environment because increased job performance of workers associated with healthy and safe work environment Psychosocial work environment is one of the most critical predictors of job performance which is showed by two famous psychosocial job stress models for example Job demand Control and effort reward imbalance In recent times these two stress models were integrated and developed into the Job demand and resource model Bakker Demerouti 2007 The job demand and resource model emphasis organizational outcomes including job performance through two different processes One process states that high job demands reduce job performance through reduced energy and health Second process states that high job resources increases job performance through increased work motivation Psychological contract breach also affects both the mental and physical health of employees When the important obligations are not met by the employers then PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that shows crucial risks to employees health Mareike Reimann Guzy 2016 Psychological contracts are considered to be an important term for understanding modern employment relationships as well as employment behavior in general Conway Briner 2005 Guest 2004 Zhao Bravo Glibkowski 2007 Empirical studies have represents that psychological contract breach enhances employees burnout Chambel Olivrira Cruz 2010 and is negatively associated with psychological well being Conway Briner 2002

According to effort reward imbalance model an imbalance in employment relationship that acts as a psychological work stressor that leads to negative emotions and perceived stress which in turn lead to damage employee physical and mental health siegrist 1996 In short psychological contracts unwritten implied contracts refer to employees expectations regarding mutual exchange agreements with their employers implying that employees expect from the organization to meet certain obligations If employees feel that their expectations are not fulfill by the employers researchers stated that this psychological contract breach lead to the experience of job strain Affective event theory Weiss Cropanzano 1996 explains the relation between employees internal influences for example cognitions emotions and mental states and their reactions to events occur in their work environment that affects job performance organizational commitment and job satisfaction Moreover AET is a psychological model that explains the relationship between emotions and feelings in the workplace and job performance job satisfaction and behaviors According to AET theory employees emotions and moods are guided by the events that occur at workplace
The theory explains that if employees expectations are not met by the employers their job satisfaction level goes down and they will not show the positive behavior at work AET also explains different employee behaviors like organizational citizenship behavior counterproductive work behavior and job withdrawal In short when employees face uplifts receiving an award or hassles dealing difficult clients at work their intention to quit or continue depends upon their moods emotions and thoughts linked with the satisfaction they derive from their workplace If workers are not satisfied they will not show the positive behavior because unmet expectations cause psychological contract breach Emotions help to explain the organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior for example emotions about one s job Organization always required workers who not only show the high level of performance in their tasks but they also engage in behavior that is not directly required from formal job descriptions Bolino Tumely 2005 Organizational citizenship behavior is highly valued by the employer Organ Podsakoff Mackenzie 2006 On the other hand counterproductive work behaviors are less ideal workplace work behaviors when employees go against the legitimate interests of an organization Counterproductive work behaviors can harm the organizations or people of organizations including customers and employees First the thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands and job resource with OCB and CWB When job demands are increased the level of energy of employees goes down due to stress and they will show the negative behavior like CWB If the job resources are increased then the level of energy of employees goes up and they will show the positive behavior like OCB Second the thesis will investigate the relationship between job demands job resources and job performance like OCB and CWB with mediating role of psychological contract breach

Due to excessive job demands the pressure will increase on employees that they do not expect from the organization so due to this psychological contract breach occur and employee will show the negative behavior like CWB On the other hand job resources decrease the pressure on employees because their expectations regarding job are met by the employer so PCB will not occur and they will show the positive behavior like OCB OBJECTIVES AND AIMS The first objective is to check the relationship between job demands and OCB The second objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and CWB The third objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and OCB with mediating role of psychological contract breach The fourth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and CWB with mediating role of psychological contract breach The fifth objective is to investigate the relationship between job demands and CWB with mediating role of psychological contract breach The sixth objective is to investigate the relationship between job resources and OCB with mediating role of psychological contract breach LITERATURE REVIEW ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR Organizational citizenship behavior basically is a very affective behavior towards any organization and it has been always a topic of great interest to scholars Smith Organ Near 1983 Lepine Erez Johnson 2001 Katz 1964 research on organizational citizenship behavior he states that organizations cannot just rely on employees prescribed behavior


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