Essay Example on Organic fertilizer refers to any decomposed materials of plant

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Introduction Organic fertilizer refers to any decomposed materials of plant and animal origin that supplies amount of nutrients for plant growth and optimum yield Organic fertilizer can be naturallyoccurring which are manure slurry peat and guano Manufactured organic fertilizer arecomposite blood meal and bone meal Nitrogen is a principal plant nutrient required in greater quantity its important component for protein enzymes and vitamins in plant and it s essential for photosynthetic molecule Nitrogen nutrient can be supplied by crop residues animal and human wastes and crop rotation with leguminous species Smil 2002 Nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer refers to the fertilizer which are added some nutrients and minerals for crop growth through plant breeding transgenic technique or agronomic practices Bous et al 2011 Bio wastes is a waste originating from plant and animal sources which may be degraded or broken down by other living organisms 



Bio wastes contain yard and park wastes residue from wood processing industries food and kitchen wastes from markets also vegetables remains which have high level of organic matter nutrients and moisture and households hospitals restaurants and schools Hoornweg et al 2012 Onion and spinach are one of the important vegetable crops grown in Tanzania and used for their nutritional value also serves as a basic sources of income Humphry et al 2011 Cramer 2000 reports that Onion Allium cepa L is an important vegetable crop in most areas of the world particularly developing countries Statement of the Problem and justification Continuation of managing wastes by open dumping and burning of residues lead to losses of nutrients and organic matter and also cause greenhouse gases emission and other impacts in the environment like bad odours leachate production and other side effects on human health Varma et al 2014 Instead of dumping in open space urban wastes can be used as organic fertilizers by small holder farmers who cannot afford inorganic fertilizer in vegetable production This is because urban wastes can be recycled by decomposing them to be used for agricultural purpose as organic fertilizer Farrell et al 2009 Composting of wastes is more economical when used as organic fertilizer and benefits the environment by reducing the emission of green house gases Lim et al 2015 Fageria and Baligar 2005 and Griffith 2010 reported that composted wastes contain Nitrogen N for plant growth and development as well as Potassium K and 



Phosphorus P useful in optimum vegetable production Most organic fertilizers comprise almost all nutrients required for onion and spinach growth and development Funda Y et al 2011 Through collection and processing of urban wastes nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer has been produced and used in production of crops in different countries Makinde et al 2001 In Tanzania there is limited information on the use of nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer made from urban wastes on onion and spinach production Therefore there is a need to explore the benefit of using nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer made from urban wastes on onion and spinach production to smallholder farmers Based on the limited information on nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizers this study will focus on nutrient composition production effects and optimal application rate on onion and spinach production Objectives General objective To determine the effect of using nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer in onion and spinach production Specific objectives i To characterize nutrients content in the nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer ii To assess the response of spinach and onion treated with nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer under screen house iii 



To determine optimal amount of nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer in production of spinach and onion under field condition Literature Review Importance of Organic fertilizer in Onion and Spinach production Enhance soil biological activity by favouring the root colonisation by mycorrhiza fungi and rhizosphere bacteria which increase N P K and micronutrients in soil by mobilisation of soluble nutrient Malusa et al 2007 Improve the soil physical properties thus enhancing soil structure and water holding capacity and supplying nutrients for plant growth and prolong the health status by suppressing some soil borne diseases and parasites Malusaet al 2012 Environment benefit due to enhancing microbial diversity reducing soil acidification or alkalinisation and reduction of greenhouse gases emission Yara 2010 Effects of Nitrogen bio fortified organic fertilizer on onion and Spinach production The application of organic fertilizer increased yield and ascorbic acid soluble sugar and reduced nitrate contents of onion and spinach compared to application of inorganic fertilizer increase growth vigour and fruits of crops Daudaet al 2008 



Addition organic bio fortified fertilizer has effect on vegetative growth of crop Aranconet al 2005 Organic fertilizer increase soil porosity that lower soil bulk density and permit root growth good root system enhance above ground growth and development which led to higher yield production Baybordi et al 2000 Effects of Organic fertilizer in soil Organic fertilizer improve the soil structure as well as providing nutrients in soil which activates species of living organisms which release phytohormones and stimulate the plant growth and the absorption of nutrients Arisha et al 2003 that microorganism require Nitrogen for multiplication Ouda and Mahadeen 2008 Response of onion and spinach on application of Nitrogen bio fortified fertilizer Synman et al 1998 reported that there is increase plant growth on application of organic fertilizer due to improving soil structure as well as increasing water retention capacity in soil


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