C cells in the isthumus and the total absence of C cells in the thyroid gland He also correlated the weight of the thyroid lobe to the number of C cells in it suggested that the weight of the thyroid lobe inadvertently influenced the C cell numbers The number of C cells seemed to vary little when the weight of the thyroid gland was normal In sharp distinction larger goiters had a quantitative increase in the C cells Souichi Inoue Shigeo Yokoyama Iwao Nakayama and Shiro Noguchi 50 1990 studied the distribution of C cells in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid by immunohistochemical analysis with polyclonal anti calcitonin CT antibody The C cells were predominantly located in the middle third of the thyroid lobes in normal subjects and patients with Graves disease and chronic thyroiditis Serge guyetant Marie christine rousselet Michel Durigon Daniel Chappard Brigitte Franc Olivier Guerin and Jean Paul Saint Andre8 in 1997 conducted an autopsy study of thyroid glands and demonstrated that C cells were mainly found in the middle third of it after digitally quantifying and analyzing the images of serially sectioned slides of calcitonin labelled C cells C cells were never found in the isthmus and were least concentrated in the lower part of the thyroid lobe However the density and surface area of C cells between the thyroid lobes were similar De Lima MA Santos BM Tiveron FS De Abreu ME51 1999 documented that the C cells were located both in the upper and middle third of the thyroid more so on the right lobe after quantifying C cells from aspirates of the normal thyroid gland from the upper middle and lower regions of both the lobes and from the isthmus C cells were hardly ever found in the isthumus Giampaolo Papi Giulio Rossi Salvatore Maria Corsello Stefania Corrado Guido Fadda Carlo Di Donato Alfredo Pontecorvi52 2010 assessed the C cell distribution by FNAC in patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and benign nodular thyroid disease and ascertained that C cells never confined found in the isthumus but were confined to the lateral lobes of the thyroid
Origin of C cells B Leblancg Paulusm Andreua and M C Bonnet 199042 investigated the thyroid C cell complexes in dogs with antigens such as thyroglobulin calcitonin calcitonin gene related peptide somatostatin neuron specific enolase and neurotensin and concluded that thyroid C cell complexes are remanants of ultimobranchial from which arise thyroid follicles and C cells All C cell complexes in various proportions had stained for follicular cells C cells stellate and cuboidal cells in follicles and undifferentiated cells Albores Saavedra et al 199043 Harach44 1997 and Papotti et al45 2000 after carrying out separate studies had individually postulated that C cells could possibly derive their origin from stem endodermal cells Albores Saavedra et al 200112 was able to experimentally prove using a quail chick transplant that C cells are derived from neural crest cells and drift and relocate to Ultimobranchial bodies UBBS which inturn bring them to the thyroid gland Yoko Kameda46 2016 arrived at an understanding that thyroid C cells are endodermal in origin after conducting molecular studies on thyroid C cells of Mice He demonstrated that the neural crest cells do not colonize the fourth pharyngeal pouch or the ultimobranchial body
Epithelial cell markers such as E cadherin were expressed in C cells fourth pharyngeal pouch and ultimobranchial body has clarified that the pharyngeal endoderm derived cells give rise to C cells Mikael Nilsson and Dillwyn Williams47 2016 redefined the long accepted view of the origin of C cells from neural crest cells by stating that all thyroid cells are endodermal in origin 2 2 Distribution and location of C cells Kracht et al48 1969 documented that C cell hyperplasia was localized to the upper third of the lateral lobes of the thyroid in hyperparathyroid patients Hubert J Wolfe Edward F Voelkel and Armen H Tashjian JR49 in 1974 documented that C cells were maximally concentrated in the middle third of each lobe and localized predominantly in para or intra follicular postions They could also decipher that as the number of C cells in the thyroid tissue increased so did the the calcitonin content of the adjacent thyroid sections William G H Gibson Tai Chan Peng and Byron P Croker7 1982 ascertained that C cell density varied not only within a gland but also among different individuals by identifying C cells in normal thyroids by immunoperoxidase staining for calcitonin and determining their total number and concentration by morphometry Gmunder Lehner RB Okamoto E Hedinger C11 in 1983 observed that the distribution of C cells was irregular and varied with the reactive state of C cells with the C cells being normally concentrated in the upper and middle regions of the thyroid whereas in the middle and lower regions in hyperplastic states Gmunder Lehner RB Okamoto E Hedinger C11 in 1983 conducted an autopsy study to encounter a predominantly symmetrical distribution of C cells in both the lobes of the thyroid He also presented some exceptional findings of the presence of
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