Essay Example on OSPF routes IP packets solely on the destination IP

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OSPF Moy 1994 claims that OSPF routes IP packets solely on the destination IP address and IP type of service found in the IP packet header The IP packets are routed as they are not encapsulated any further within protocol headers as the packets transit the autonomous system Black 2000 states that the OSPF protocol is an interior gateway protocol IGP function that works via sending and exchanging routing information between other routers within an autonomous system Black 2000 continues to point out that OSPF routers work within one autonomous system Moy 1994 claims that the protocol quickly detects topological changes in the AS such as router interfaces shutting down due to failure if this happens then protocol calculates new loop free routes after a period of convergence Racherla 2011 discusses that this routing protocol uses link state sate information to make decisions on routing calculations using the shortest path first SPF algorithm Martey and Sturgess 2002 adds more information claiming that the SPF requires each node to have complete information about the entire topology All routers inside the area therefore obtain an identical link state database for the area Lichtwald and Walter 2004 claim that the most important packets to be sent via OSPF is the hello packets that are used automatic detection of neighbours and failure detection Odom 2013

Supports this theory and explains that OSPF starts by broadcasting hello packets In turn the packets lists each routers router ID which serves as each routers unique name or identifier for OSPF Graziani and Johnson 2008 discuss that by default hello packets are sent every 10 seconds on Ethernet and point to point segments However they are sent every 30 seconds on frame relay segments this frequent updates are to maintain neighbour adjacency Shapiro and Boyce 2006 explains that the dead interval specifies the period after which neighbouring routers consider that one router is down This is decided when the neighbouring routers have not received a response to the hello packet after a period of time Edgeworth Foss and Rios 2015 claims that the default timer for the dead interval is four times more than the hello packet timer Graziani and Johnson 2008 Clarifies that Edgeworth Foss and Rios 2015 statement is true as the Ethernet segment is 40 seconds and the frame relay segment is a 120 seconds Link state and Distance Vector Osterloh 2002 claims that routing protocols are separated into categories based on the algorithm they use to route data Routers running link state protocols identify neighbours and send broadcasts to update one another This happens through the exchange of link state advertisements or LSA s Clark 2003 describes that each router restricts the organisation of routing information which it floods to all other OSPF routers to its router LSA 



The LSA only contains information about outgoing access possibilities from the router Oppenheimer 2011 claims that link state routing requires more router CPU power and memory then distance vector routing and can be more difficult to troubleshoot Dean 2013 explains that distance vector routing protocols determine the best route for data based on the distance to a destination However some distance vector protocols only take into account the number of hops that it takes to get to the destination while other protocols can take network traffic characteristics in to account Valentine and Whitaker 2008 claim that distance vector protocols periodically broadcast the entire routing table out of all interfaces Medhi and Ramasamy 2007 explain that the constant updates give neighbours of a router that is running a distance vector protocol the required distance and cost to the destination EIGRP Dooley and Brown 2003 claim that EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol However Cisco 2013 released the routing protocol as open standard for the Internet Engineering Task Force Liu 2009 claims that EIGRP is an advanced distance vector protocol Moraes 2011 backs up this claim that EIGRP is classified as an advanced distance vector protocol

However Balchunas 2012 claims that the protocol is in fact a hybrid routing protocol incorporating features of both distance vector and link state routing protocols Liu 2009 continues to discuss that the protocol addresses many of the limitations of other routing protocols including its predecessor Interior Gateway Routing Protocol IGRP Cisco 2017 discusses that EIGRP is suited for many different topologies and media In a well designed network EIGRP scales well Liu 2009 supports the claim by Cisco 2017 that this protocol supports many different topologies and adapts to scalability within networks Operation of DUAL Moraes 2011 explains that Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol bases its operation on the algorithm named diffused update algorithm dual Savage n d claims that the diffusing update algorithm constructs least cost paths to all reachable destinations on a network DUAL guarantees that each constructed path is loop free at every instant including periods of topology changes and network convergence Moraes 2011 EIGRP updates provide routers with the knowledge of a vector metric containing six parameters such as bandwidth delay reliability load MTU and hop count Angelescu 2010 supports and agrees with Moraes 2011 and Savage n d as DUAL uses the metrics to determine the least cost routes based on feasible successors The feasible successors are considered to be guaranteed loop free routing neighbours that will be used to forward packets reliably to the end destination Savage n d also adds that routers that are not affected by topology changes are not involved in the feasible successor recalculation


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