# Essay Example on PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY GROUP D EXPERIMENT ON DENSITY

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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY GROUP D EXPERIMENT ON DENSITY ABSTRACT Density or mass density can be appropriately defined as the mass per unit volume of a material substance Density is represented using the character ρ It is a letter in the Greek alphabet called Rho However it is sometimes represented using the Latin letter D Density is obtained by dividing the mass of the substance by it s volume Mathematically represented below ρ m v Density is a very important property when it comes to drilling fluids The pressure exerted by a static pressure i e the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid is dependent on the density of the drilling fluid Therefore the proper control of the density of the drilling fluid will in turn control the hydrostatic pressure The hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid has to be greater than the formation pressure in order to prevent the uncontrollable flow of formation fluids into the wellbore This experiment determines the density of two different samples of drilling fluids INTRODUCTION The starting point for drilling fluid pressure control is mud density The density of a substance is it s mass per unit volume It is represented with the Greek character Rho ρ The Density of a drilling fluid needs to be monitored closely and adjusted in order to control the pressure properties of the fluid to maintain wellbore stability In this experiment density is determined using a four scale mud balance It is a standout amongst the most delicate and exact field instruments accessible for deciding the thickness or weight per unit volume particular gravity of penetrating liquids

Make sure some of the test fluid is expelled from the little hole on top of the lid this shows that the cup is full and it will also free any trapped air or gas 4 Cover the hole on top of the lid and wipe the lid and the body of the cup with a dry cloth 5 Then place the mud balance on the knife edge and move the rider along the scale until the bubble indicates that the system is balanced 6 Obtain the mud weight by reading the value on the scale RESULTS Density ppg Lbs ft3 Specific gravity s g Psi 1000ft SAMPLE 1 8 70 65 1 1 09 450 SAMPLE 2 8 90 66 6 1 11 460 DISCUSSIONS Sample 1 is a water based mud consisting of Water and Bentonite Sample 2 is a water based mud consisting of Water Bentonite and Barite From the results above it is shown that the density of sample 2 is greater than the density of sample 1 Barite is a weighting material used in the field to increase mud density and from this experiment it can be observed that the sample with barite has a greater mud weight than the mud samples with only water and Bentonite The Barite increased the mud weight of sample 2

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