PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY GROUP D EXPERIMENT ON DENSITY ABSTRACT Density or mass density can be appropriately defined as the mass per unit volume of a material substance Density is represented using the character ρ It is a letter in the Greek alphabet called Rho However it is sometimes represented using the Latin letter D Density is obtained by dividing the mass of the substance by it s volume Mathematically represented below ρ m v Density is a very important property when it comes to drilling fluids The pressure exerted by a static pressure i e the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid is dependent on the density of the drilling fluid Therefore the proper control of the density of the drilling fluid will in turn control the hydrostatic pressure The hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid has to be greater than the formation pressure in order to prevent the uncontrollable flow of formation fluids into the wellbore This experiment determines the density of two different samples of drilling fluids INTRODUCTION The starting point for drilling fluid pressure control is mud density The density of a substance is it s mass per unit volume It is represented with the Greek character Rho ρ The Density of a drilling fluid needs to be monitored closely and adjusted in order to control the pressure properties of the fluid to maintain wellbore stability In this experiment density is determined using a four scale mud balance It is a standout amongst the most delicate and exact field instruments accessible for deciding the thickness or weight per unit volume particular gravity of penetrating liquids

An exceptional favorable position of this Mud Balance is that the temperature of the example does not tangibly influence the precision of readings A high effect plastic case ensures the adjust amid transport and gives a protected base in its working position The Balance is developed so the settled volume container toward one side of the bar is adjusted by a settled stabilizer at the contrary end with a sliding weight rider allowed to move along the graduated scale A level bubble mounted on the beam indicates when the system is in balance The mud balance is built with a beam graduated into four scales Pounds per gallon Specific gravity Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per square inch per 100 feet of depth The scale ranges are from 6 5 23 0 lbs gal ppg 0 79 2 72 specific gravity s g 49 179 lbs ft3 340 1190 psi 1000f EXPERIMENT APPARATUS Graduated Cylinder Electronic Lab mixer stirrer Four scale Mud balance CALIBRATION OF SCALE 1 Fill the cup with water first the close the lid and wipe the top of the lid and the body of the cup itself dry with a napkin or a soft cloth 2 Start the rider off at 8 3ppg or 10s g then move until the instrument is in balance When the level bubble on the beam is at the center of the two vertical lines then the system is in balance 3 If the reading is below 8 3ppg add the difference the between 8 3ppg and the reading to the mud weight If the reading is higher than 8 3ppg subtract the difference from the mud weight after a test is made PROCEDURES 1 Place the mud balance on a leveled surface 2 Put the test liquid into the cup 3 Cover the cup with it s lid and turn it clockwise to set it in place

Make sure some of the test fluid is expelled from the little hole on top of the lid this shows that the cup is full and it will also free any trapped air or gas 4 Cover the hole on top of the lid and wipe the lid and the body of the cup with a dry cloth 5 Then place the mud balance on the knife edge and move the rider along the scale until the bubble indicates that the system is balanced 6 Obtain the mud weight by reading the value on the scale RESULTS Density ppg Lbs ft3 Specific gravity s g Psi 1000ft SAMPLE 1 8 70 65 1 1 09 450 SAMPLE 2 8 90 66 6 1 11 460 DISCUSSIONS Sample 1 is a water based mud consisting of Water and Bentonite Sample 2 is a water based mud consisting of Water Bentonite and Barite From the results above it is shown that the density of sample 2 is greater than the density of sample 1 Barite is a weighting material used in the field to increase mud density and from this experiment it can be observed that the sample with barite has a greater mud weight than the mud samples with only water and Bentonite The Barite increased the mud weight of sample 2

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