Essay Example on Presence of microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants

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Introduction Presence of microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants pays a major role in the treatment process According to Gerardi 2007 the archaebacteria and eubacteria are considered the most important microorganisms in a biological Wastewater treatment plants The two prokaryotes are commonly referred to as bacteria Wastewater treatment roles attributed to bacteria include biological phosphorus removal degradation of soluble CBOD floc formation and nitrification denitrification methanogens and fermentative processes Zooglea Ramigera has long been considered the typically activated sludge bacterium responsible for the floc formation It is capable of producing cellular components that enable flocs to stick together or agglutinate According to Unz 2017 since its discovery Zooglea ramigera has been identified primarily from the characteristic tree like Zooglea which are frequently observed in polluted environments However determination of its taxonomic position has been complicated due to insufficient data in its physiology biochemical and nutritional data to accurately characterize and distinguish its species The generic name Zooglea originates from the Greek language meaning the living glue because of its ability to attract nutrients from the water Based on this description this organism obtained its name Initially the only recognized species of the genus Zooglea Zooglea ramigera This report therefore focuses on its morphological characteristics metabolism environment relation with other organisms and its significance in society or in a specific ecosystem that is relevant in water technology Morphological characteristics Zoogloea ramigera are extremely large non motile bacteria and can grow usually as amorphous clumps or fingered like a tree as shown in figure 1

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These bacteria are arranged in sharply demarcated columns or fingers which protrude from clusters Its cells are straight to slightly curved rod shaped and are nonspore forming bacteria Dugan Stoner Pickrum 2006 Figure 1 Rod shaped Zooglea ramigera Adapted from Dugan et al 2006 This bacteria s staining is Gram negative Friedman Dugan Pfister Remsen 1968 They are Neisser negative Neisser positive turns purple while Neisser negative turns yellow With this feature they can be differentiated from filamentous Zoogloea ramigera forms characteristic cell aggregates surrounded by gellatinous matrices the zoogloeal matrices This matrix is composed of extracellular polymer strands of polysaccharides Friedman et al 1968 The polysaccharide coating of Zoogleal bacteria is always high or excessive see figure 2 below Figure 2 Zooglea ramigera clusters Figure 3 Excessive polysaccharide coating of Zooglea ramigera www EnvironmentalLeverage com Ecosystem Zoogloea ramigera live freely in organically polluted fresh waters or waste water treatment Dugan et al 2006 Usually its environment is characterized by a high food to mass ratio where there are readily bio degradable soluble organic compounds such as wastewater It can also can be in selector systems such as activated sludge Williams de los Reyes 2006 Figure 2 Habitat of Zooglea ramigera s Dugan et al 2006 Metabolism Structure and composition of the zoogloeal matrix and consider it in relation to metabolic activities of the Zoogloea ramigera Madigan M Martinko J eds 2005 It possesses an extremely active oxidative metabolism in the natural habitat

They are aerobic and chemoorganotrophic Zoogloea ramigera 1 16 M was found to Zoogloea ramigera has been found to contain two stereospecific acetoacetyl CoA reductases 1 NADP linked with D β fi hydroxybutyryl CoA specific 2 NAD linked and L isomer specific Saito Fukui Ikeda Tanaka Tomita 2000 The NADP linked enzyme has a pH optimum for the reduction of acetoacetyl CoA at PH of 8 1 however for the oxidation of hydroxybutyryl CoA optimum PH is non definite Zoogloea is not choosy nutritionally thus a variety of organic carbon sources in a simple defined media may be used to culture it Gerardi 2007 Poly β hydroxybutyrate PHB is produced whenever both a carbon source is highly present as well as B ketothiolase PHB synthesis and intracellular degradation is partially controlled by NADPH and availability through glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme with optimum operating PH of 8 5 The species is also known to use Mn oxidation metabolism because the matrix made by Zoogloea takes in and concentrated metal in water sources Range for pH temperature salt concentration The preferred temperature for growth is 28 37 degrees C Zooglea ramigera flourish in an environment with a PH of 7 0 7 5 The formation of flocs and films in liquid media at late stages of growth are distinguished by treelike or fingerlike morphology Colonies on C4 agar at 3 4 



days reach 1mm in diameter are circular raised translucent with opaque centers of gray or white Mature colonies are tenacious and cohesive and can be lifted from agar surface intact with a needle Control of the environment for Zooglea ramigera can be achieved via PH and temperature Similar to its metabolic activities the preferred temperature for growth is 28 37 degrees Zooglea ramigera flourish in an environment with a PH of 7 0 7 5 because a decrease in PH of the activated sludge process favors the proliferation of filamentous fungi and disfavors the growth of bacteria Angelbeck Kirsch 1969 Nutrient type addition and control is usually recommended Zoogleal bulking occurs when the bacteria takes too long to access nutrients in an environment with high BOD loading or nutrient slug feeding rate is not consistent or when the nutrient is not sufficient According to Richard Ph 2003 conditions that favor Zooglea or other microbes responsible for viscous bulking are High levels of soluble organics in the influent and imbalance in macronutrient C N P favoring organisms that an uptake scarce nutrients such as Zooglea ramigera Possible interactions with other micro organisms Transfer of carbon and energy through a food web or food chain interrelates organisms in an ecosystem Each organism has an effect on other organisms symbiotic or predator prey relationships Free swimming ciliated protozoa multiply in number in the presence of large numbers of dispersed Zooglea ramigera bacterial cells During floc formation the number of dispersed Zooglea ramigera bacterial cells decreases and as a result to decrease in the number of free swimming ciliated protozoa


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