Essay Example on Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in school going Girls

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Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in school going girls of pubertal age group Introduction Iron deficiency anemia is a formidable health challenge in developing countries and remains persistently high despite national programs to control this deficiency 1 In the phase of later school age and early adolescence nutrient and minerals requirements are high and reserves are being laid for the subsequent rapid growth and development Iron deficiency in this age group has been primarily studied for its adverese effect on hematinic status However anemia may compromise pubertal growth spurt In girls due to initiation of their menstrual period they are more exposed to iron deficiency The consequence of this anemia during puberty has negative effects on fertility of the individual in future and has the risks of delivery of low birth weight preterm birth and abortions It may also reduce physical work capacity and cognitive function This in turn may adversely affect learning and scholastic performance of the school girls entering adolescence with subsequent academic failure 



Physical work capacity may be reduced because in IDA the decrease in hemoglobin reduces the availability of oxygen to the tissues which in turn affects the cardiac output Further in iron deficiency changes in brain iron content and distribution and in neurotransmitter function may affect cognition Anemia may produce scholastic under achievement and behavioral disturbances in school children However little is known as regards impact on children entering adolescence and those undergoing the pubertal growth spurt Thus this project holds an initiative to conduct a general study of iron deficiency anemia in 400 girls studying in public school of my city of 11 to 15 years age The major motive being to have an experiment based knowledge to fill the pockets of information and to pull attention towards this matter for the betterment of overall development of girls Objectives To study complete blood picture of school going girls of pubertal age group 11 15 yrs To assess the iron levels in patient presenting with microcytic hypochromic blood picture To correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and age at menarche Methodology SAMPLE SIZE AND STUDY AREA The prospective study would be conducted on 400 school going adolescent girls 10 15 yrs Girls would be selected through stratified random sampling procedure Based on the age at menarche the sample would be classified as early 9 6 11 5 years normal 11 5 13 6 years and late 13 6 15 years matures 



DATA COLLECTION METHODS Questionnaire based interview The study will be carried out using a pre tested and modified questionnaire All the girls would be asked to fill the questionnaire personally in a regular classroom The questionnaire includes questions regarding the subject s age at menarche information regarding her menses co curricular activity scholastic activity hobbies etc Identification data and age of the girls will be ascertained from school records also Age at menarche will be noted in completed years and months Blood collection and analysis Blood samples will be collected for biochemical assessment of anemia in the presence of a medical practitioner 4ml of anticoagulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 3ml venous blood sample The salient hematological findings in these cases are as under Blood tests 1 Complete blood count CBC a Hemoglobin Hb b Hematocrit value c Red blood cell distribution width RDW d Red blood cells RBCS e ABSOLUTE VALUES i Mean corpuscular volume MCV ii Mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCH iii Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC f WBC g Platelet 2 BIOCHEMICAL FINDING a Serum ferritin TECHNIQUES To do complete blood picture using hematology analyzer 5 part To study iron levels using KIT Method in patients presenting with microcytic hypochromic blood picture Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Change in lab values in iron deficiency anemia Change Parameter ferritin hemoglobin MCV TIBC transferrin RDW TIBC total iron binding capacity Clinical examination of pallor will be done The colour of the mucus membrane particularly those on the underside of the eyelid in which blood supply is close to the surface provides an opportunity to observe the pigmentation of the blood 



A pale mucous membrane is suggestive of anemia whereas a more highly coloured membrane usually occurs in persons with adequate hemoglobin levels Presence of any clinical signs of nutritional deficiencies especially iron deficiency anemia would be specifically looked Pallor of palms conjunctiva buccal cavity and nails has to be looked for Anemia will be graded according to hemoglobin levels and pallor as mild moderate severe and extremely severe Each girl will be asked to report the date of the beginning of her last menses the length of her usual menstrual cycle and the number of days of bleeding Inclusion criteria school going girls of age 11 to 15 years Exclusion criteria Girls suffering from other infective chronic disease and other hemoglobinopathies Implications This study highlights that anemia as a major public health problem in this population School based interventions on identified associated factors are important to reduce the burden of anemia among school adolescents To reduce the burden of iron deficiency anemia in pubertal age group before they land up into severe iron deficiency The prospective study that would be conducted will hold a detailed reporting of patient s findings Thus will help concerned doctor for better treatment regimen This study will also conclude with statistics of disease epidemiology i e Prevalence of disease in corresponding area in particular span of time References 1 Kanani S Poojara R Supplementation with iron folic acid enhance growth in adolescent Indian Girls J Nutr 2000 130 452S 455S


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