Essay Example on Psychology is a culmination of other Philosophies








Psychology is a culmination of other philosophies theories and subjects a Most of the concepts in psychology can be traced back to ancient religions and philosophy i Because psychology is so cumulative it has been hard to make one specific and integrated theory 1 Each theory is then tied to different subareas a Developmental b Cognitive c Physiological d Social psychology 2 Why there is a contention between clinical researchers and clinical practitioners in the subfield of abnormal psychology a Both feel that they have the dominant expert knowledge in the field i Known as the scientist practitioner gap b Each have their own ideas theories and their own way of researching i Most often leads to not working together and doing their own thing as well as competition against one another 3 Professionals who study certain abnormal behaviors tend to not notice these behaviors in themselves a However in order to fully understand these things we must first start by looking within ourselves i By coming to understand ourselves we gain self knowledge and allows to have empathetic understanding of those around us 4 When working with others who have abnormal behaviors a Should think of first as human beings with some type of disorder i Dehumanizing the person takes away from our empathy of the person 1 Takes away from ability to help person 5 Divisions in disciplines and their effects on the field a Different names and definitions for things depending on the discipline i

Doctor nurse psychological suffering referred to as psychiatric or mental disorder 1 Physical and mental ii Psychoanalytic training psychopathology 1 Mind body and soul a Psychoanalytic approach is no longer taught but is still sometimes used b Each discipline has a stake in the well being of society i Choose treatments and how society treats and views mental disorders even though called different things 6 Self understanding take time a Takes hard work over long periods of time b There will be progress with regression interspersed i Developing self awareness can be unsettling 7 Academic work found in abnormal psychology that challenges the view that evidence must be strictly gathered empirically a Joseph Tychlak i Introspective and extrospective 1 Different theories are used to study both our internal feelings introspective than our behaviors and different responses to the environment extraspective b Harvard Department of Social Relations i Sought to combine fields such as psychoanalysis anthropology and sociology with the field of experimental psychology c European philosophical hermeneutics i Psychological definitions and subject to interpretation and so are not completely scientific in experimentally scientific sense d Feel that we should not just study psychology experimentally i Should include own thoughts and perceptions and meanings e Emergence of psychoanalytic psychologists after World War II 8 Behaviorist approach a Positive i Observable able to use scientific method more effectively ii Believed that the environment controlled behavior 

1 To change behavior you would need to change the environment a Reinforcement and punishments change behaviors b Negative i Cannot completely change a person's environment forever 1 Change is usually not lasting once leaves institutional setting ii Behaviorists techniques that are taught to change behavior is hard to implement 1 Requires organization and structure hard for overworked and overstressed parents and teachers iii The Reinforcements that are given lose power over time 1 Problem behavior increases over time or new problem behavior is replaced by old one symptom substitution iv Too much control placed over clients by behavioral therapists 9 Changes in antidepressant medications a Previously severed cases of depression were only treated with medication i Norepinephrine and serotonin levels both altered b 1980's Prozac SSRI led to belief that depression was caused by biochemical imbalances in the brain i Led to those with mild cases of depression being treated with medication 1 Once taking SSRI many people stopped trying to work on problems a Problems didn't bother them anymore like before but nothing that changed b Same way that people who abuse drugs respond to problems 10 Problems with the scientific findings on psychotropic medications a Results have been skewed to make the psychotropic medications that are being studied appear safer and better working than they really are i Because benefits pharmaceutical companies and psychiatrists b The amount of psychotropic medications have now increased substantially due to these studies which may be truly inconsistent 11 DSM 5 rejected by many practitioners a Over 40 000 psychologists and mental health professional worldwide reject b Dr Thomas Insell says it is scientifically invalid 12 Pragmatism William James a If a theory is successful it will be able to be applied practically within society and positively help them i 

Works for regular people and doesn't favor as much the experts who are studying it b Practical everyday living c Goals what are sought after or thought to be good for us i Success of theory is measured by whether it's helping one to achieve their goals d Allows to take into account the moral and ethical values when dealing with scientific treatments 13 Reflective practice a There is a difference between theoretical knowledge and practical wisdom i We must know how to do something but must also have morals right or wrong to do 14 Values that must be present with a clinical decision is being made to be considered practical wisdom a Need to have knowledge about the problem b Skills to know how to help the client c Moral values to effectively help the client in the best way possible 15 Fishman a Felt that humans behaviors are context dependent and is influenced by factors that could never be replicated b Felt that case studies were better than empirical controlled studies 16 Ronald Miller author of book a Feels that psychotherapy is a viable option instead of medication based therapy to effectively help those who are viewed as abnormal in behav

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